Medical Apartheid:The Dark History Of Medical Experimentation On Black Americans

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From the era of slavery to the present day, the first full history of black America’s shocking mistreatment as unwilling and unwitting experimental subjects at the hands of the medical establishment.

Medical Apartheid is the first and only comprehensive history of medical experimentation on African Americans. Starting with the earliest encounters between black Americans and Western medical researchers and the racist pseudoscience that resulted, it details the ways both slaves and freedmen were used in hospitals for experiments conducted without their knowledge—a tradition that continues today within some black populations.

It reveals how blacks have historically been prey to grave-robbing as well as unauthorized autopsies and dissections. Moving into the twentieth century, it shows how the pseudoscience of eugenics and social Darwinism was used to justify experimental exploitation and shoddy medical treatment of blacks, and the view that they were biologically inferior, oversexed, and unfit for adult responsibilities.

Shocking new details about the government’s notorious Tuskegee experiment are revealed, as are similar, less-well-known medical atrocities conducted by the government, the armed forces, prisons, and private institutions. The product of years of prodigious research into medical journals and experimental reports long undisturbed,Medical Apartheid reveals the hidden underbelly of scientific research and makes possible, for the first time, an understanding of the roots of the African American health deficit.

At last, it provides the fullest possible context for comprehending the behavioral fallout that has caused black Americans to view researchers—and indeed the whole medical establishment—with such deep distrust. No one concerned with issues of public health and racial justice can afford not to read Medical Apartheid, a masterful book that will stir up both controversy and long-needed debate.

The author

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Harriet Washington is the author of Deadly Monopolies: The Shocking Corporate Takeover of Life Itself and of Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present, which won the 2007 National Book Critics’ Circle Award and was named one of the year’s Best Books by Publishers’ Weekly.
                            She has won many other awards for her work on medicine and ethics and has been a Research Fellow in Ethics at Harvard Medical School, a fellow at the Harvard School of Public Health, a Knight Fellow at Stanford University, a senior research scholar at the National Center for Bioethics at Tuskegee University and a Visiting Scholar at the DePaul University College of Law.

http://www.amazon.com/Harriet-Washington-Medical-Apartheid-Experimentation/dp/B008GQ24UE

Humour: The Man With A Sad Face

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The man with a sad face

Sometimes before a baby is born, his or her parents had already suggested suitable names for the child. Names are influenced by our popular culture, tradition and heroes. Many people bear Biblical names, others not. As a Ghanaian from the Fantse tribe, my traditional name is Ato or Kwamena, because I was born on Saturday.

Names mean a lot but it’s not everyone who knows someone’s name. That’s the reason we often hear “Please what’s your name?” You may know someone because you’ve seen the person a couple of times, but may not know his or her name. I am one of them. In the neighbourhood where I grew up in Africa, few knew me but don’t know my name.

One day someone I know came looking for me in the neighbourhood where I lived. That was his first attempt to visit me. He mentioned my name, yet no one could help him. One Good Samaritan tried his best to help him. “Can you please describe the man you are looking for,” he asked the stranger. “He is a man with dark complexion, about 5 feet 10 inches tall, whose face looks like someone crying.”

“May be I know him, because there is a man who lives close to the beach, whose face really looks like someone crying, maybe it’s him,” said the Good Samaritan.

“Can we go to see if he is the one,” said the stranger. I was at home when I heard a knock on the door, as soon as I opened, stands Ben, my cousin who lives in the Western Region of Ghana. He narrates the funny description which led to my discovery.

“What, do my face looks like someone crying?” I asked.

“If your face doesn’t look like someone crying, how can this Good Samaritan realize that to come home with me? Ben asked.

This is not a matter of anger but laughter. I laughed so hard that my stomach ached, the fact that Ben has never told me this before. After Ben’s visit, I thought about this for a very long time and decided to get rid of this funny and humourous description about me.

By then I’ve heard of the book called ‘The Power of Positive Thinking” by Norman Vincent Pearle. I contacted a friend who had more books than me and borrowed Norman’s book from him. It was a very thick book but inspiring. “Believe in yourself! Have faith in your abilities! Without a humble but reasonable confidence in your own powers you cannot be successful or happy.” – Norman Vincent Pearle.

I did really enjoyed reading this interesting book. In fact, I have no words to describe how the book miraculously transformed my life, to get rid of that hidden facial expression which I have lived with for years without my knowledge. Well, it may be that my face still looks like someone crying, because of too much trouble in this world.

Health: How Africans Survived On Traditional Medicine Long Before The White Man’s Medicine

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The magic tree called Neem

In 1832, the Scottish merchant McGregor Laird led an expedition to the Niger Valley and out of 48 people that accompanied on the expedition, 37 lost their lives. These experiences led to the belief that Europeans could not survive in coastal West Africa, which came to be known as ‘The White Man’s Grave.’ Because Europeans noticed that Africans survived much better in the region from these fevers. Despite malaria killing many Africans as well, they acquired resistance to malaria in their childhood, baffling European physicians.

The loss of 37 expeditioners not only revealed that Europeans can’t settle in Africa that time but also demanded how Africans had been able to survive on that harsh continent of deadly malaria? From generation to generation, ancestors pass on their expertise in herbal medicine preparations to families. One of Africa’s powerful concoctions against malaria is prepared from leaves of a neem tree.

The neem tree, biological name (Azadirachta indica) is a unique tree, and the leaves are the most complex leaves on the planet. The neem tree has over 130 different biologically an active compound. The trees grow in tropical and semi-tropical regions.

About the Neem Tree:

Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a tree in the mahogany family. Native to India and throughout Southeast Asia, neem trees grow in tropical and semi-tropical regions. The neem tree grows quickly and can reach heights over 100 ft tall. With its surprising variety of uses and benefits, the neem tree is known as the ‘cure of sickness’ in West Africa, because of its extreme bitterness.

The main components of neem leaves include protein (7.1%), carbohydrates (22.9%), minerals, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin C, and carotene. But the leaves also contain glutamic acid, tyrosine, aspartic acid, alanine, praline, glutamine and cysteine-like amino acids, and several fatty acids. Without toothpaste or brush, a piece of chewed neem tree gives a clean teeth brush and fresh mouth each morning. Another life-saving tree is the Kuntan tree (Uapacca Guiniensis.) The cover of the tree was used to treat fractured bones.

Enjoying corn porridge without sugar

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The miracle berry or fruit, known as Asaba in the central region of Ghana, serves sugar because it contains a protein called miraculin that tastes sweet enough to replicate the effect of sugar.

There was no sugar, yet our ancestors enjoyed herbal tea and cornmeal porridge. A plant which bears small reddish fruit, called miracle fruit, serves as a substitute for sugar. The fruit contains a protein called miraculin that tastes sweet enough to replicate the effect of sugar. After eating berry fruit, everything sour, such as lemon or vinegar tastes sweet in the mouth.

Africa is endowed with many plants that can be used for medicinal. Some of the herbs heal high blood pressure, skin diseases, sore throat, arthritis, digestive problems etc. Many of the drugs consumed throughout the world for health purposes, were manufactured from herbs taken from Africa and Asia because those herbs grow in tropical countries. For example, African ginger is a very powerful medicine.

Many around the world wonder how Africans live, especially those in the villages without electricity. Frankly speaking, there is everything available to make life easy for them just like those living in modern cities. Before health centers were built our ancestors deliver babies at home successfully and the child’s umbilical cord was treated with herbal medicine.

Food Preservation in Africa

Have you ever wonder how Africans preserved food without electricity? If there is no electricity, there wouldn’t be any fridge or storage facilities but the food is best preserved in such a way that it doesn’t get rotten. With smoldering wood, generating intensive heat, which adds a layer of desiccation to preserving qualities, fish, meat and other kinds of seafood are smoked. The heat of the fire dehydrates all the liquid from the fish or meat and makes it last longer without rotten.

Salt and the sun also play a major role in traditional food preservation in Africa. For example, fish are well preserved with salt and Cocoa beans are spread in the sun to dry for many days, before they are exported or used to manufacture cocoa products, such as chocolates, drinks, beverages and body lotions consumed locally.

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Fish smoking is one of the oldest traditional ways of food preservation in Ghana.

The Palm Tree: The Subsistence Of Life In Africa

Below is a link to another article revealing the traditional life in Africa.

https://joelsavage1.wordpress.com/2015/03/21/the-palm-tree-the-subsistence-of-life-in-africa/

FEMALE CIRCUMCISION: Barbarism And Cruelty Against Young Girls

 

Female circumcision should be abolished

Female circumcision or female genital mutilation involves the cutting of the clitoris of young girls before getting married. This savage and barbarous acts are dominant in Islamic countries.

Female circumcision or female genital mutilation involves the cutting of the clitoris of young girls before getting married. This savage and barbarous acts are dominant in Islamic countries.

The Bible speaks about circumcision, but only for a male child. “And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, as God had commanded him.” Genesis 21:4 indicates that. To this day, many Christians around the world circumcised male children, but there is nowhere written in the Bible that female should be circumcised.

The question is ‘Where does female circumcision come from and what’s the significance behind this practice which has caused a health hazard to thousands of girls in countries mostly practiced? Every religion has its dos and doesn’t or built on certain principles but at times some principles or traditions followed by ancestors are meaningless. Female circumcision is one of them.

The idea behind this barbarous act is to “help” the woman to be faithful and stay with only her husband. It’s forbidden for a woman to marry two men or sleep with another man if married. That is the case, but nothing wrong for a man to marry ten women? This is greed than law or principle governing a religion.

Oppression and discrimination against women continue in many parts of the world, including Africa and Asia. Many women have become subject to all kinds of horrible situations, ranging from rape, sexual harassment, physical battering, acid attacks to psychological abuse. Unfortunately, female circumcision is now a threat. Non-sterilized dangerous implements are used daily to mutilate the genitals of women without ceasing, despite all the efforts by some organizations to stop this cruelty.

Scientifically and biologically, the isn’t any medical record indicating that male circumcision poses a health hazard, but hundreds medical reports confirming that female circumcision is a health hazard. This act has no significant health benefits for girls or women, instead, causes severe bleeding and injury to female genital organs. Many women, who have had severe complications after circumcision, end up in wheelchairs, crippled or barren. This cruelty also steals away their feeling and orgasm.

It is estimated that about 140 million girls and women worldwide are currently living with disastrous effects of female circumcision. Horrific procedures have severely traumatized and psychologically affected thousands of women. Female circumcision is practiced in 26 countries across Africa. In the Republic of Sierra Leone, an ethnic group called “The Bondo Society” still carries this outdated tradition. Gambia launched a three-year program aimed to abolish Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).

The project captioned “Eradication harmful traditional practices through rights education” started from to 2010 to 2012. It will be very wise on health grounds when other countries practicing this inhuman act follow. FMG is a crime. The World Health Organization is against it. The world should, therefore, fight against this wicked act. It’s totally inhuman. Cases of female circumcision should be considered as a crime against women.

 

Female circumcision is a crime

A victim of the female circumcision who wants to prevent others from suffering

Who Says There Is No Happiness Or Love In Africa?

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Just mention the name Africa, everyone knows it as a continent with ethnic conflict, wars, civil unrest, slavery and diseases, than a happy continent of beautiful culture, tradition, rich natural resources and a place with less or without suicide.  Many think there is no love and Africans don’t even know what love is. This beautiful image speaks it all. I wish you Happy Weekend.

The Significance Of Kente Cloth In Ghana

Kente cloth in Ghana

Ex-Ghanaian leader Jerry John Rawlings, ex-president Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton in Kente outfits.

Certain products lift the image of a country, as the sole manufacturer of that great product. Historically, traditionally and culturally, Kente products and wears have brought recognition to Ghana, through the history of the Ashanti history. Can we say then that Kente cloth originates from the Ashanti?

 

The tradition of Kente cloth is said to have been developed in the 17th century and stems from ancient Akan weaving techniques, dating as far back as the 11th century AD. The beautifully woven cloth even though is associated with the culture of the Ivory Coast; history reveals originated from Ghana.

Ghana’s fame as the first country in Sub-Saharan Africa to gain independence reflects on its traditional Kente cloth, worn on every occasion, including ceremonies, festivals, and royal events. Kente designs aren’t just fashion but have stories with proverbial meaning, giving each cloth its own distinction.

 

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Boxer Muhammad Ali and former Ghanaian leader, late Kwame Nkrumah. The boxer put on Kente cloth on his arrival in Ghana.

Kente remains a symbol of national pride, not only for Ghanaians but also for Africans in the Diaspora.  For example, African Americans highlight their connection to the African continent, proudly presenting Kente in celebrations of African American heritage, such as Black History Month.

Many Africa-Americans wear it to show their awareness or support of “Black Pride.” Thus, the United States and other parts of the world are today central to the African art market and the livelihood of artists in Ghana.

You can’t visit Ghana exploring the rich traditional culture of the country by not wearing a Kente cloth. Even at overseas conferences, Ghanaians in Kente cloth always steal the show.

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“I am happy to have my first Kente Cloth,” says the baby.

The Mystery Of Beads In Africa And How It Turns Men On

Africa is a land of culture, traditional and the aspects of its cultural experience are complex. From generation to generation, beads play a significant role in the lives of girls, as they grow into full adults. In the African society, beads are worn around the waist of women, neck, and hands. They are also used by men and the Royal families on ceremonial occasions because it is perceived as ornamental, symbolic adornment; and as well as signs of wealth, high-class society, and of femininity.

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According to the elders, wearing beads around the waist help to shape the figure of women, but the way it helps remains a mystery. However, it is confirmed that girls who wear beads around the waist, often grow to have attractive beautiful curvy hips. In regard to girls when the beads become small around the waist that determine that the girl is gradually entering maturity or growing.

There are many things that turn men on, believe it; some are gentle, painful and weird, especially in the Western world. Some guys even like women to whip them just to turn them on. Does this sound like insanity? What about those who like to lick the armpit of ladies, because of their sweet perfume just to turn them on? At times when reading articles, I keep repeating over and over to be sure, if I’m developing a mental problem or reading exactly what is written because it’s hard to believe.

In Africa, it is the beads around the waist of women that play a significant role in turning men on. The beautiful colored beads over the curved hips act like a magnet making men soft like a piece of bread in water. Many African women could tell you how their men hate to see them without beads around the waist because the men like to see the hips more accentuated. In fact, beads around the waist of women are no more considered traditional, but a fashion, because they want to make their men happy.

It’s more interesting as many Europeans and Americans are interested in African costumes, beads, tradition, and festivals. Every year thousands of Europeans travel to Africa to participate in cultural events. Some visit Kumasi, the Garden City, in the Ashanti Region to visit study about the Ashanti Empire and its legend. Others go to Cape Coast in the Central Region of Ghana to visit the castles used as slave depots, inhumanly transporting many African across the Atlantic as slaves.