Zika virus: Your questions answered

zika childBy Gretchen Vogel, Jon Cohen, Martin Enserin

Where did the Zika virus come from?

First isolated in 1947 and first described in a paper in 1952, Zika has long been known to occur in Africa and Southeast Asia—but until a decade ago, fewer than 15 cases had been described in the scientific literature. In 2007, the virus caused a big outbreak on Yap, an island group in the Western Pacific that is part of the Federated States of Micronesia; since then, it went on a major tour of other Pacific Islands before it landed in Brazil, from where it started spreading rapidly to other parts of South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean.

Why has it exploded so suddenly?

There may have been big outbreaks in Africa and Asia in the past that went undetected; scientists weren’t paying much attention. But the current massive epidemic was an event waiting to happen. Latin America has huge numbers of A. aegypti, also known as the yellow fever mosquito, an important vector for Zika. (The Asian tiger mosquito, A. albopictus, which is on the rise around the world, is believed to be a vector as well.) In addition, nobody in the Americas had immunity to the virus. Travel makes it worse. Aedes mosquitoes don’t fly more than a few hundred meters during their lives; Zika travels from city to city and country to country when infected people get on cars, buses, trains, and planes.

These combined factors meant that the virus had the ability to spread far and fast once it had arrived.

Will Zika spread to the United States and Europe?

Both the United States and Europe have already seen “imported cases”—people who arrived from a Zika-affected country carrying the virus. This was widely expected given the size of the epidemic in Latin America. The key question is whether there will be local outbreaks—that is, mosquitoes spreading the virus from person to person. There’s definitely a chance; A. albopictus occurs in several countries in southern Europe (and it may move north), while the southern and eastern United States have populations of both A. aegypti and A. albopictus.

If so, scientists expect outbreaks to be much smaller than elsewhere, based on past experience with mosquito-borne diseases. Recent dengue outbreaks in Florida, Texas, and Hawaii haven’t sickened more than a few hundred people, for instance; an outbreak of a mosquito-borne disease called chikungunya in northern Italy in 2007—which started when a man infected with the virus arrived from India—ended after 197 cases. One reason that outbreaks in these countries tend to be smaller may be that people spend less time outside and live in houses that are more difficult for mosquitoes to enter; mosquito population sizes may play a role as well.

Do we know for sure that Zika is causing a rise in birth defects?

No. There is strong circumstantial evidence that areas in Brazil hit hard by Zika have experienced a sharp increase in the number of babies born with microcephaly, a condition in which the head is much smaller than normal because the brain fails to develop properly. But it will take at least several months before the results from the first case-control studies of pregnant women infected with Zika are available. Doctors in Brazil first noticed an increase in cases of microcephaly during ultrasounds of pregnant women in June and July, a few months after the sudden rise in Zika infections. Fetal medicine expert Manoel Sarno, who works at the Federal University of Bahia, says the pattern of brain damage he is seeing now looks distinct from microcephaly caused by other infections, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) or rubella. He and his colleagues started a study in August that is following women infected with Zika during their pregnancy; the results could come out late summer. Similar studies are underway elsewhere in Brazil and in Colombia.

Are there other urgent questions that scientists are asking?

Plenty. Scientists have difficulty determining who has been infected and who hasn’t because diagnostic tests have limitations. The most accurate tests—which detect viral RNA in a patient’s blood—only work within a week of the first symptoms appearing. After that time, researchers can test for antibodies in the blood. But current tests for Zika antibodies cross-react with antibodies to dengue, which is so widespread in Brazil—and much of the rest of Latin America—that almost all adults have antibodies to it. That makes it difficult to tell whether the mother of a baby born with microcephaly was infected with Zika earlier in her pregnancy.

Researchers would also like to know how often Zika is transmitted through sexual contact. One U.S. scientist who caught the virus in Africa passed it to his wife after he got home in 2008, and a second case of suspected sexual transmission happened in French Polynesia in 2013. But researchers have no idea what the risk is. (“If I was a man and I got Zika symptoms, I’d wait a couple of months before having unprotected sex,” virologist Scott Weaver of the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston recently told The New York Times.)

What drugs are available against Zika?

None. Until last year, Zika was so rare and believed to be so mild, that nobody bothered to look for candidate drugs. Even now that the virus is surging, it’s not obvious that there’s a big market for an antiviral drug, because the vast majority of those infected have very few symptoms or none at all. And it’s not clear that a drug could prevent birth defects when women contract Zika during pregnancy; by the time they become infected and develop symptoms, it may be too late to prevent such damage. A vaccine against Zika may offer more hope of preventing microcephaly.

And when can we expect a vaccine?

That will take years. Several groups have begun to make candidate Zika vaccines, a process that will take at least several months. Most of these vaccine approaches are piggybacking on existing vaccines. For example, many vaccines are made by stitching proteins from a pathogen’s surface into a harmless virus or vector; that is now being tried with Zika using those same vectors. Once a candidate vaccine is made, it will have to be tested in animals before humans.Human trials begin with small safety studies, then move on to larger studies that test whether the candidate product works. All of that usually takes 10 to 15 months. Given the urgency, the timeline could be compressed, but even so, Anthony Fauci, the director of the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, told STAT that it may be at least 5 to 7 years before a Zika vaccine is commercially available.

Then what can we do to stop the spread of the virus?

Stop mosquitoes from biting people. Countries and communities can try to reduce mosquito populations by removing the small water reservoirs—such as flower pots, empty bottles, and discarded tires—in which Aedes mosquitoes like to breed. People can also reduce their personal exposure—especially important for women who are or might become pregnant—by putting screens on windows, covering their skin, and using insect repellant. However, history has shown that the impact of mosquito control on epidemics is modest at best, and they’re difficult to sustain.

There must be better ways to control mosquitoes?

Not yet but they’re in the works. A British biotech called Oxitec—which was recently purchased by Intrexon, a U.S. synthetic biology company—has developed A. aegyptimosquitoes containing a gene construct that will kill their offspring before they reach adulthood. When massive numbers of male individuals of this strain are released in the wild, they will mate with local females, producing offspring that are not viable, which has been shown to make a dent in the population.

In another line of research, scientists are infecting A. aegypti with a bacterium named Wolbachia, which reduces mosquitoes’ ability to transmit diseases. The researchers developing these approaches were mostly thinking about dengue, but Zika’s surge is giving their attempts a new sense of urgency. But again, it will take several years before these strategies are ready for prime time.

Zika Virus: Factories Of Nazi Comrades Revealed

 

Bio-weapon Zika virus

A child affected with Zika Virus: The disease is a bio-weapon but World Health Organization is lying and deceiving the public

.By Micro-Surgeon and Scientist Johan Van Dongen

The scientific origin of the Zika virus is that the virus is named after the Ugandan Zikabos because it was there for the first time in 1947, isolated from the blood of a Rhesus monkey. It was only in 1968, the virus succeeded demonstrating in people.

The Zika virus is endemic in large parts of Africa. As a result of human influences, the virus also surfaced in Asia, including countries in Central Asia, South East Asia and Yap Island (Micronesia) in the Pacific.

At that specific time, the fear is that the virus will quickly spread through the different islands in the Pacific Ocean will and eventually reach the American continent. That fear has become a reality by ending up in South America and Germany today, the country of Hitler.

The Zika virus in South America, adds as a third virus disease, which can be transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, shows symptoms that match a mild form of dengue, including joint pain, headache, and fever.

On November 6, 2015, the virus also made headlines in Suriname. The laboratory of the University Hospital Paramaribo (AKKAR) has fixed may argue that some patients have sustained the Zika virus. In January 2016 first Zika test virus was developed in Germany. The researchers found out that only one in five people infected with the Zika virus will get sick.

Rockefeller Foundation in Entebbe (Uganda)

Supranational poison factories must keep running, so every day with loads of drugs out of the gate they are flooded and can be found anywhere in the world, once sold. All indications in the past century, there are science experiments in Africa with a number of manipulated infinite microorganisms in Saharan Africa and beneath. It was clear from the outset as Africa became an excellent breeding ground for those interested.

In 1936, the British Government and the Rockefeller Foundation in Entebbe (Uganda), built the Yellow Fever Research Institute. In the very isolated regions of Bwamba, West Nile Virus (1940) and a Bwamba-fever virus (1941) were discovered. In 1944, they met the Semliki Forest virus, and in 1946, two more viruses were found. They were the Mengo-encephalitis virus and the Bunyavirus (like the Crimean-Congo virus and the hantavirus which is a member of the Bunya-aviridae).

American and British scientists found out that the region of Uganda was actually swarmed with viruses. In the fifties and sixties were fifteen others, among the ‘Bwamba group. Recharged viruses found in an area mainly occupied by agricultural population. According to the Englishman Cook, in 1901, very rarely faced diseases occurred.

Within a few decades, Bwamba became a unique cluster of the most remarkable and particularly malicious virus species, which from the outset have been very willing to rely on researchers from France, England, and the United States, once one of those viruses again struck somewhere.

During the Cold War, Uganda was engaged with both military and civilian doctors. In Bwamba region, the Yellow Fever Research Institute was then very active and in Entebbe and in the Zika forest, much research was conducted by the East African Virus Research Institute. In addition, several military hospitals were scattered across the country. Hospitals were located near the city of Arua. EH Williams and Kuluva-hospitals, serving the American mission in 1941. Between 1951 and 1965, Williams’ hospital recorded more than 41,000 patients with the same disease.

For over 50 years, the region is plagued by various diseases in the city Arua. Between 1943 and 1944, there raged very deadly measles epidemic. In the early sixties, many infants had anemia and half of those children later died of malaria infection, according to official statements. The Kaposi’s sarcoma was active and in 1966, there was an epidemic of Burkitt’s lymphoma, followed by an outbreak of Hepatitis-B.

After 1970, the inhabitants of the region were particularly affected by tetanus infections and in 1978, the measles came back. In the eighties, it is known that people were suffering from AIDS and in 1989 and 1990, scientists from the Institute Pasteur were back to inject Ugandan children with 1,558,800 doses of TB vaccine. Thereafter, in Kenya and Zimbabwe, it was recorded that the vaccine had serious side effects. The diseases were then given all sorts of weird names but not the name that was right: “AIDS!”

Old Nazi institutes continue their collaboration with western institutes.
There were also three foreign delegations present namely Behringwerke AG, in Marburg, am Lahn and the Paul Ehrlich Institute, in Frankfurt am Main, both from Germany. What they did in the Second World War, we all know about it and there was also the Institute of Sera and Vaccine Immunology in Zagreb, from the former Yugoslavia.

Precisely those three institutions were closely involved in the development of the Ebola virus, which was officially born in 1967, in the German Marburg. Whereas the Wistar Institute one of the world’s leading institutes has became involved especially in the field of retroviruses and Aids in humans and animals.

Present were very smart people, but beware of the fact that they showed that ‘smartness in a form of stupidity’ because why should they use human beings to carry out experiments? They all discussed the highlights of a large number of vaccines specifically tested in Central and West Africa and innocent people were executed.

These were supposedly tested vaccines against smallpox, polio, measles, leukemia and Epstein Barr Virus. Especially the latter virus in the civilized countries just causes glandular fever, but in African countries, it leads to cancer and AIDS as a result of genetic manipulation.

The development and testing of viruses on humans and animals were mainly conducted under the auspices of the CIA and the necessary biological warfare preparations were manufactured by MSD and Litton BioNetic. The first South African who went over to ring the bell was a physician. When he published his research, what happened next: He had a motorcycle accident and was killed.

News of that accident appeared in a local newspaper in the Ugandan city of Kampala, an article that the CIA was accused of the fact that its employees disguised as scholars and journalists, spreading lies about the origin of the AIDS virus just as they did to Thabo Mbeki.

Not long after this verbal battle ended, in the house of Wilson Carswell, one of the leaders of the Ugandan AIDS research, his entire contents, including computer equipment and all files were completely destroyed. At least that was officially notified. Carswell, a soldier of the British Army, ostensibly managed to escape.

Later he dived into the complex biological warfare from the British in Porton Down. Since he became head of the AIDS Unit, at the Department of National Health, he was primarily responsible for population change in South Africa outage.

China’s Foreign Minister to Visit Ebola Stricken Countries In West Africa

 

Wang

Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi speaks during a news conference after meeting with Singaporean officials in Singapore August 3, 2015

World | Reuters | Updated: August 04, 2015 10:34 IST

BEIJING:  Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi leaves this week on a visit to three of the African nations hardest hit by an outbreak of the Ebola virus, the Foreign Ministry said on Wednesday. Wang will leave on Saturday for a three-day visit to Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea, the ministry said in a brief statement, without giving further details.

Wang is now in Southeast Asia, where he will attend a regional security summit this week. Ebola has killed more than 11,200 people in West Africa since it broke out in December 2013. China, Africa’s biggest trading partner, has sent hundreds of medical workers to Africa and contributed aid of more than $120 million to the anti-Ebola effort, after initially facing criticism for not doing enough.

Many big companies in China have invested in Africa, tapping the continent’s rich vein of resources to fuel the Asian giant’s economic growth over the past couple of decades. About 200 operate in West Africa, where Ebola has been at its most lethal.

A regional security summit this week.

Ebola has killed more than 11,200 people in West Africa since it broke out in December 2013. China, Africa’s biggest trading partner, has sent hundreds of medical workers to Africa and contributed aid of more than $120 million to the anti-Ebola effort, after initially facing criticism for not doing enough.

Many big companies in China have invested in Africa, tapping the continent’s rich vein of resources to fuel the Asian giant’s economic growth over the past couple of decades. About 200 operate in West Africa, where Ebola has been at its most lethal.

© Thomson Reuters 2015