The Spectrum Of Business In Africa Through E-Commerce

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Small scale and large scale entrepreneurs have taken the advantage of the effectiveness of the media and technology, including e-commerce to promote and market products, reaching every corner of the globe without fatigue. What is e-commerce and how has it been beneficial to entrepreneurs?

Assuming you live in Asia, Europe or America, would you like to travel thousands of kilometers for a product you want desperately in South Africa? Taking such a journey is not only waste of time but also money. Remember time is money. Through the birth of modern technology, e-commerce acts as a facilitator in getting your message to the manufacturer to send the consumer whatever he is looking for online.

Thus; E-commerce is online shopping making it easier for consumers to purchase products via the internet from manufacturers. E-commence enhances business to reach beyond consumer base and access global markets like never before. Last year, November 18, delegates at the ‘Sixth Annual European Conference highlighted on the effect and impact of in E-commerce generally in Europe.

The European E-Commerce sector is said to worth an estimated 350 billion Euros and it is predicted to create 1.5 million jobs in Europe by 2018.  The writer takes a look at the impact and benefit of e-commerce in Africa’s business. The effect of E-commerce business in the African continent is enormous, changing the face of the traditional consumer.

Internet trade has made it easier for African entrepreneurs to search for quality products online, compare prices and purchased products. According to research by Google South Africa, there was an increase of 49% in query volumes in Nigeria, 37% in South Africa and 33% in Kenya, during 2014.  E-commerce hasn’t been beneficial only to African entrepreneurs, consumers and manufacturers, but also attracted widely investment opportunities alike.

Some of the African countries with booming E-commerce markets, transforming the economic landscape are Senegal, Morocco, Mozambique, Ghana, South Africa, Nigeria, Egypt, Tanzania, Cameroun, and Kenya. At the epicenter of Africa’s thriving economy and business, E-commerce has driven hundreds of businessmen to success, in different fields, especially the mobile telephone industry.   In the year 2010 alone, the Ghanaian government made GHC598 million in taxes and levies, representing 10% of government income for that year.

The secret to every successful business depends on the variety and quality of the products. E-commerce holds a ray of hope for African entrepreneurs and small scale business. It seems after gaining the political independence; Africa folded its arms, waiting for a miracle to come from heaven. God helps those who help themselves, now Africa is gradually emerging from the realms of poverty through the eye of E-commerce.

Would France Be Free From Terrorism Without Colonizing Many Islamic Countries?

 

France 3“France population consists of dangerous terrorists born and raised in the country, making the country an easy target.” – Joel Savage

The scramble for Africa was very swift. It was an opportunity Europeans made good use of it, but with iron fist, after discovering Africa’s wealth, in the least advanced continent. Even though malaria killed hundreds of Europeans, by 1862, they had reached the source of the Nile, then little later, they traced the route of the Niger and confirmed the reality of Africa’s rich mineral resources- ivory, gold, diamonds, tin, copper, rubber etc.

Between the 1870’s and 1900, Africa experienced European imperialist invasion, diplomatic pressures, military invasions, and eventual conquest and colonization. Among other European countries, France had Republic of Benin, Upper Volta, now Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of Chad, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Senegal and Republic of Togo in Sub-Saharan Africa, and Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia in North Africa, then Djibouti, Lebanon and Syria.

Since most of the countries colonized by France were Islamic countries, Islam became the second largest professed religion in France, following Catholic-Christians, with an estimated total of 5 to 10 percent of the national population. France stands as the largest Muslim country in Western Europe. Do we have to ask: Would France be free from terrorism without colonizing many Islamic countries?

As the story unfolds, France ruled heavy Islamic dominant countries, including Republic of Guinea, until Guinea attained its independence in 1958.  Like Belgium, that couldn’t stand the pain of losing Congo and embarked on ruthless destruction of Congo, both physically and medically, France aimed to destroy Guinea as well. They emptied all the coffers of the bank and took everything from the state house, including the furniture to France. The newly elected Prime Minister Ahmed Sekou Touré inherited a very bad economy and complete looted country.

France still interested in Africa, established its embassies in every country they colonized and continued interfering with African politics. The reason whenever there is coup in any of the countries France colonized, they quickly send the military to arrest the situation. France seen as paradise, nationals from countries they colonized in Africa, had the opportunity to travel to France to study, request for political asylum and  to work as immigrants.

Apart from migration, a lot of Muslims were born in France, amounting to 15 percent of the total population, creating Muslim communities through out France. The country therefore has a long and complicated relationship with the Muslim world and its own immigrant population, many of whom have been in the country for generations.

Due to the heavy concentration of Muslims in France, the country is therefore an easy target for terrorists.  In the beginning of this year, gunmen shot dead 12 people at the Paris office of French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, in an apparent militant Islamist attack. That’s where France should have been careful to avoid the present  attacks that have killed at least 129 people.

Under President Francois Hollande, France launched its first airstrikes against ISIS targets in Syria in September, but external attacks against terrorists, can’t weaken the foundation of terrorism threatening France, because the enemies-terrorists are within the people in the country. The France government should first fight against terrorism at home, to weaken its foundation, before concentrating on external issues.

Scientific History of Ebola And The Controversial Statue Of King Leopold II

Collins

Mr. Collins Nweke

AN OPEN LETTER TO MR. COLINS NWEKE

By Johan Van Dongen

Mr. Collins Nweke is a Belgian politician of the Green Party currently serving a second term of office as Councillor at the Ostend City Council in West Flanders province. Collins Nweke is of Nigerian origin, and settled in Belgium in 1993. He is the first and so far the only non-Belgian born person to be elected to political office in West Flanders.

He is particularly active in social welfare and ethnic minority issues. He stood as a candidate for the European Parliament in the 2014 elections. Nweke has served as Chief Executive and Chairman of Nigerians in Diaspora in Europe (NIDO Europe), and has been active in consultancy and advocacy in the field of socio-economic development for Nigeria and for Africa in general.

Dear Mr. Collins Nweke,

Due to the relatively independence of the East and West blocks and the closed character of the Soviet ideology, there was little reason to speak of any influence of one and another. Therefore, research activities for offensive or defensive purposes were mainly, conducted under military auspices with high degree of secrecy and controversial testing programs independently. Several countries began programs to develop Bio-Warfare programs following World War I (WWI) including Britain, Belgium, Canada, France, Holland, Italy, Soviet Union and Poland, as described by Bellamy and Freedman in their book: ‘Bio-terrorism’ in 2001.

So Mr. Nweke, although biological warfare was the subject of detailed examination pursuing WWI, However, the most infamous biological weapon program (BWP) was probably that begun by Japan in 1932, in occupied Manchuria. According to Sheldon H. Harris in his book ‘Factories Of Death,’ he describes the Japanese Biological Warfare development between 1932-1945. But more importantly he also described the American Cover-Up.

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The writer: Micro-surgeon Johan Van Dongen

Mr. Nweke, just for reference, in my book: “Pleidooi voor de Aap”, English title “Pleaded for the Ape”, and “Aids and Ebola the greatest crime in medical history against mankind,” I described that from 1931 to 1945, the Japanese Army engaged in biological warfare (BW) and chemical warfare (CW) experiments using live human subjects, which led to the first widespread use of bacteriological agents in the war. This definitive work about Unit 731 (the Japanese Army’s bacteriological warfare center) and its commander, lieutenant General Ishii Shiro, is the result of more than 20 years of research, including 12 field trips to China in the thirties and forties of the last century.

These actions changed the scope of research activities on ordinary citizens and specific Africans on highly contagious diseases of military importance dramatically. Thus, establishments of military research centers for aggressive, offensive, and defensive research developments began under high 2 secrecy, in both East and West blocs as also published by Klietmann and many others in 2001.

I assure you Mr. Nweke, there can be no doubt as to the fact that the ideological East-West conflict was one of the central problems of the globe of the last century, a period of tension driven by a complex interplay of ideological, political, and economical factors contradictory to one another, which led to shifts between cautious cooperation and often better superpower rivalry over decades. The foundation was the bipolar military competition between the two superpowers the USA and the USSR and their respective allies and developing countries, thus this era was more portrayed as an era of “proxy war” because of its global impact on the rest parts of the world.

Major research and development programs first emerged in the late 1930s and early 1940s. For instance, the development of biological weapons program which involved an extensive lists of causative agents of Plague, Glanders, Ebola, Aids etc, at Camp Detrick, Frederick, Maryland in USA, as the headquarters of the arm’s BW research was implemented in 1943, with approximately 3,800 military and 100 civil personnel. Where many of the efforts involved military researchers, other from Public Health Service, other Federal Agencies and Civilian Research Institutions were also involved.

Historical records show that USA, UK, Canada and the former Soviet Union (FSU) justified the importance of their program because they have learned that since 1937 Japan had conducted a large biological warfare program, including human test, at its Unit 731 in Manchuria.

The German army was considered to be the first to use weapons of mass destruction, both biological and chemical agents, during WWI, followed by Italian biological warfare programs.

Mr. Nweke, as a Belgium politician and very well educated, you should know by now that although all military research establishments in general are covert, the scale of secrecy, intensity of research, span of time, area of competence and precedence in specific agents. In the FSU research activities, these level were planned and controlled by state and kept under high secrecy till the collapse of the Soviet Union. In most cases, it is incomparable to that of the research approaches known in Western hemisphere.

For instance, the existence of large-scale production and storage capabilities of genetically manipulated vaccines, among other BW agents were some of the factors that distinguishes the Soviet Programs or in area of defense, the development of live plague vaccine based on EV76 line NIIEG used for more than 7 decades and continued to be used in some member states of FSU. This phenomenon is respectively described intensively by Ken Alibek in 1999, Henderson also in 1999 and by Zliniskas in 2006; and so far te work of investigative scientist and micro-surgeon Johan van Dongen.

Further scientific prove to Mr. Collins Nweke

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever the precursor of Ebola

The development of different forms of plague 7 vaccines, like non cellular or synthetic, vaccines also known as “chemical vaccine” proposed to be used as booster vaccine or an “aerosol vaccine” in combating disease outbreaks in case of Bio-attack or Bioterrorism were described by Alexandrov in 1962. These are some of unique achievements of FSU, for which no comparable studies are available in Western hemisphere.

In Africa, there are many species of animals that serve as natural reservoirs for the viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. For example, the strain of Ebola causing the current outbreak, Ebola Zaire, is believed to have been transferred to humans by fruit bats belonging to the Pteropodidae family, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This bat family, is also the natural reservoir for the Marburg virus.

Marburg virus has been linked to the recent death of a man in Uganda, as reported by the Washington Post. Like Ebola, Marburg belongs to the Filovirus family of viruses and is spread among humans when a person comes into contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person. Another virus found in Africa that causes hemorrhagic fever is Lassa virus, which is an Arenavirus and is predominantly found in West Africa.

Unlike Ebola and Marburg, the reservoir host of Lassa is a rodent known as the Multimammate rat. Whereas the Filoviruses Ebola and Marburg cannot be spread through the air, Lassa virus can be transmitted when tiny particles of rat feces or urine containing the virus become airborne, according to the Ohio Department of State Infectious Disease Control Manual (ODH-IDCM).

All of the virus families that can cause hemorrhagic fever share certain characteristics, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. They all have a basic structure that consists of a core of ribonucleic acid (RNA) as the genetic material, surrounded by a fatty material.

Harry Hoogstraal and the discovery in our times of Ebola

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), nowadays known as Ebola, came to modern medical attention in 1944–1945, when about 200 Soviet military personnel were infected while assisting peasants in war-devastated Crimea (Ukrainian SSR). Subsequent epidemics occurred in Astrakhan (1953–1968) and Rostov Oblasts (1963–1971) of USSR and in Bulgaria (1953–1973). There have been numerous lesser outbreaks in southern USSR and, in 1976 outbreaks in Pakistan.

However, it was only in 1967, when Soviet workers first used the generally accepted newborn white mouse (NWM) inoculation technique for CCHF virus isolation and study, that the etiologic agent could be characterized anti-genetically, physio-chemically, and morphologically. Collaboration in 1968 between the Soviet and American experts, M. P. Chumakov and Jordi Casals demonstrated the serologically identical properties of virus strains from human CCHF patients and corpses, lower mammals, and ticks from Asian and European areas of the USSR and from Bulgaria, Congo (Zaire), Nigeria, and Pakistan.

These results confirmed and broadened in subsequent studies, enabled serological and other research tools to be developed for producing identifiable antibodies and antigens required in experimental procedures and seroepidemiological surveys and obtaining scientific evidence to demonstrate vector and reservoir species and virus dynamics in nature. CCHF virus, a member (without generic assignment) of the family Bunyaviridae, is the prototype of the CCHF serogroup, which also includes Hazara virus (from Ixodes redikorzevi parasitizing alpine voles in Pakistan). CCHF virus is enzootic in the Palearctic, Oriental, and Ethiopian Faunal Regions, chiefly in steppe, savanna, semi-desert, and foothill biotopes where 1 or 2 Hyalomma species are the predominant ticks parasitizing domestic and wild animals.

Presence of the virus has been demonstrated by isolations from humans fore instance in Senegal, Nigeria, Central African Empire, Zaire, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Egypt. As the current concern of bioterrorism with the use the growing of Ebola agents and its global concern, full understanding of research achievements of the FSU/CIS on the subject is indispensible.

Today more than ever, global threats requires much greater collaboration between governments, experts, institutions, in creating a global grass–roots of networks of research and discussion, to achieve global solutions in developing, an efficient, universal, acceptable vaccine most importantly against the Ebola plague, as the most possible way to avoid bioterrorism on public health and the concerns about security at the global level.

Thus, a long term sustainable schedules of congresses and partnership between Russia, and other leading states on the research activities of the pathogens in concerns in the world will be the best option for the solution, development of prophylactic measures against the pathogens, in creating a think-tank, comprising ranges of experts from different countries of interest, initiating dialogs, enhancing transparency and better cooperation in both sides.

Reference:

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/15.4.307 307-417 First published online: 22 May 1979.

Mr. Nweke, what is your role as a politician for Africans in your motherland and Africa in general?

Mr. Nweke, as an African politician in Belgium, one thing you should know is that, it’s not your position as the only African politician in Belgium that matters, but your services to both Belgians and the African Community in Belgium. Are you pleased about the statues of Leopold and streets named after him after maiming and killing over ten million Africans, including innocent children in Congo, when there is no statue of Adolf Hitler for killing six million Jews? What are you doing as an African politician to help your fellow Africans in your mother land, to prevent being used as Guinea pigs to test drugs manufactured in Europe and America?

I see no reason for attacking Mr. Joel Savage on LinkedIn’s platform, for encouraging Africans to read, because he wants Africans who don’t like to read, to stop saying that Aids and Ebola are curses from God and acknowledged the facts that they are medical crimes committed by the West and America against Africans.

Mr. Nweke, you came to Belgium in 1993 and Mr. Savage came in the year 2000, but it seems you did little or haven’t done anything at all for the African Community in Antwerp, so they don’t know you. Because when Antwerp’s African Community were scared to go for treatment in Stuivenberg Hospital, due to the abnormal high death rate of Africans in that hospital, the African Community asked Mr. Savage as a journalist to go there to investigate and he did.

The results of his investigations is now published as Little Boygium-Wonderful Experience.’ His book has made Stuivenberg Hospital one of the safest hospitals in Antwerp at the moment. When I asked Mr. Savage why he did the investigation, he told me that, Belgium is a country you don’t need to trust, because if they can erect statue and named streets after a criminal who killed and maimed over ten thousand Africans, including children, then they can definitely kill Africans for body organs.

Mr. Nweke, I would like to leave with this advice, you can always clear your voice or sing for someone to feel your presence, but do it at the right time. I’m sorry I don’t know your significance as an African politician in Belgium, when Mr. Savage is doing the work you suppose to do for the African Community.

The African Dream: How A Million Migrants Are Building A New Empire In Africa

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Chinese immigrants of the recent past and unfolding twenty-first century are in search of the African dream. So explains indefatigable traveler Howard W. French, prize-winning investigative journalist and former New York Times bureau chief in Africa and China, in the definitive account of this seismic geopolitical development.

China’s burgeoning presence in Africa is already shaping, and reshaping, the future of millions of people. From Liberia to Senegal to Mozambique, in creaky trucks and by back roads, French introduces us to the characters who make up China’s dogged emigrant population: entrepreneurs single-handedly reshaping African infrastructure, and less-lucky migrants barely scraping by but still convinced of Africa’s opportunities.

French’s acute observations offer illuminating insight into the most pressing unknowns of modern Sino-African relations: Why China is making these cultural and economic incursions into the continent; what Africa’s role is in this equation; and what the ramifications for both parties and their people—and the watching world—will be in the foreseeable future.

The Author

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Howard W. French is an associate professor at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, where he has taught both journalism and photography since 2008.

For many years, he was a Senior Writer for The New York Times, where he spent most of a nearly 23 year career as a foreign correspondent, working in and traveling to over 100 countries on five continents.

Until July 2008, he was the chief of the newspaper’s Shanghai bureau. Prior to this assignment, he headed bureaus in Japan, West and Central Africa, Central America and the Caribbean. Mr. French’s work for the newspaper in both Africa and in China has been nominated for the Pulitzer Prize.

He has won numerous other awards, including the Overseas Press Club award and the Grantham Prize. French speaks English, Chinese, Japanese, French, and Spanish.

From 1979 to 1986, he lived in West Africa, where he worked as a translator, taught English literature at the University of Ivory Coast, and lived as a freelance reporter for The Washington Post and other publications.

French is the author of A Continent for the Taking: The Tragedy and Hope of Africa (Knopf 2004), which was named non-fiction book of the year by several newspapers. “Continent” won the 2005 American Library Association Black Caucus Award for Non-Fiction, and was a finalist for both the Lettre Ulysses Award for the Art of Reportage and for the Hurston-Wright Foundation’s non-fiction prize.

Disappearing Shanghai,” French’s documentary photography of the last remnants of Shanghai’s historic old neighborhoods has been featured in solo and group exhibitions in the United States, Europe and Asia, and reprinted in numerous magazines. Prints from Disappearing Shanghai have been acquired by the Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum in St. Louis, as part of its permanent collection, and shown in solo exhibition there.

Disappearing Shanghai” was published in book form by Homa and Sekey in August 2012. The work is a collaboration with the author, Qiu Xiaolong, a Shanghai native, who contributed original poetry.

French’s third book, China’s Second Continent: How a Million Migrants are Building a New Empire in Africa, was published by Knopf in May 2014. It was selected by The New York Times, The Economist and The Guardian as one of the most noteworthy books of the year. He is now at work on a new non-fiction book, also under contract with Knopf, about the history of Chinese power and the geopolitics of East Asia.

French contributes often to a variety of publications, including The Atlantic and The New York Review of Books, and occasionally reviews books for The Wall Street Journal. He is also a frequent public speaker.

French was a 2010-’11 fellow of the Open Society Foundations. He is also a board member of the Columbia Journalism Review, and he currently resides in New York City.

For more information, please contact Howard French at globetrotter@howardwfrench.com

The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born

A railway freight clerk in Ghana attempts to hold out against the pressures that impel him toward corruption in both his family and his country. The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born is the novel that catapulted Ayi Kwei Armah into the limelight. The novel is generally a satirical attack on the Ghanaian society during Kwame Nkrumah’s regime and the period immediately after independence in the 1960s. It is often claimed to rank with “Things Fall Apart” as one of the high points of post-olonial African Literature.

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Excerpt from Chapter 6: 

“And where is my solid ground these days? Let us say just that the cycle from birth to decay has been short. Short, brief. But otherwise not at all unusual. And even in the decline into the end there are things that remind the longing mind of old beginnings and hold out the promise of new ones, things even like your despair itself. I have heard this pain before, only then it was multiplied many, many times, but that may only be because at that time I was not so alone, so far apart. Maybe there are other lonely voices despairing now.

I will not be entranced by the voice, even if it should swell as it did in the days of hope. I will not be entranced, since I have seen the destruction of the promises it made. But I shall not resist it either. I will be like a cork. It is so surprising, is it not, how even the worst happenings of the past acquire a sweetness in the memory. Old harsh distresses are now merely pictures and tastes which hurt no more, like itching scars which can only give pleasure now.

Strange, because when I can think soberly about it all, with out pushing any later joys into the deepr past, I can remember that things were terrible then. When the war was over the soldiers came back to homes broken in their absence and they themselves brought murder in their hearts and gave it to those nearest them.

I saw it, not very clearly, because I had no way of understanding it, but it frightened me. We had gone on marches of victory and I do not think there was anyone mean enough in spirit to ask whether we knew what we were celebrating. Whose victory? Ours? It did not matter. We marched, and only a dishonest fool will look back on his boyhood and say he knew even then that there was no meaning in any of it.

It is so funny now, to remember that we all thought we were welcoming victory. Or perhaps there is nothing funny here at all, and it is only that victory itself happens to be the identical twin of defeat.

The Author

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Ayi Kwei Armah,  (born 1939, Takoradi, Gold Coast [now Ghana]), Ghanaian novelist whose work deals with corruption and materialism in contemporary Africa.

Armah was educated in local mission schools and at Achimota College before going to the United States in 1959 to complete his secondary education at GrotonSchool and his bachelor’s degree at Harvard University. He thereafter worked as a scriptwriter, translator, and English teacher in Paris, Tanzania, Lesotho, Senegal, and the United States, among other places.
          In his first novel, The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born (1968), Armah showed his deep concern for greed and political corruption in a newly independent African nation. In his second novel, Fragments (1970), a young Ghanaian returns home after living in the United States and is disillusioned by the Western-inspired materialism and moral decay that he sees around him.
           The theme of return and disillusionment continued in Why Are We So Blest? (1971), but with a somewhat wider scope. In Two Thousand Seasons (1973) Armah borrowed language from the African dirge and praise song to produce a chronicle of the African past, which is portrayed as having a certain romantic perfection before being destroyed by Arab and European despoilers.         
          All of Armah’s works were concerned with the widening moral and spiritual chasm that existed between appearance and reality, spirit and substance, and past and present in his native Ghana.

http://www.amazon.com/Ayi-Kwei-Armah/e/B001HPIEC8