Top 20 African Countries Stink Of Corruption

Women sell food from their canoe at Makoko fishing community in LagosLagos: The Makoko slum in oil rich Nigeria crippled by corruption

In the abundance of water, is the fool thirsty? Africa is blessed with natural resources such as gold, oil, diamonds, cobalt, iron, copper, uranium, silver, bauxite, cocoa beans and petroleum etc. Unfortunately the standard of living of many people in the continent is deplorable. This is largely due to corrupt governments ruling many countries in the African continent.

Transparency International has been publishing the corruption perceptions index (CPI) since the turn of the new millennium. If a country has a CPI of 100 it is very clean. If the score is 0, then the country is highly corrupt.

Here is a brief overview of the top 20 most corrupt nations in Africa as of 2014, according to Transparency International.

=24. Mozambique (CPI score: 31)
Although the government of Mozambique has taken steps to fight corruption, its still a big problem. Corruption remains in both the public and donors, who support almost half of the nation’s budget.

=24. Sierra Leone (CPI score: 31)
Systematic corruption has caused weak governance and widespread poverty in Sierra Leone. The anti-corruption institutions still lack resources, staff and expertise.

=24. Tanzania (CPI score: 31)
Although there are comprehensive laws to fight corruption, its still a serious problems in Tanzania with bribery is often demanded in the business sector.

23. Mauritania (CPI score: 30)
Corruption has become deeply entrenched in Mauritania. Part of what fuels corruption in this nation is the insufficient information or absence of transparency about local companies, the identities of their owners, and financial report.

=21. Gambia (CPI score: 29)
Gambia’s judiciary is subject to pervasive political interference, and there is corruption in many parts of the government.

=21. Togo (CPI score: 29)
Corruption in Togo is common and those involved rarely punish. Corruption more among prison and police officers, and members of the judiciary.

20. Madagascar (CPI score: 28)
Madagascar is one of the world’s poorest countries and has had a negative growth due to corruption.

=18. Cameroon (CPI score: 27)
In Cameroon, many corrupt civil servants drive around in their expensive luxury cars. People who try to bring these corrupt officers to justice pay a high price.

=18. Nigeria (CPI score: 27)
Political corruption pervades Nigeria. The rise of public administration and discovery of petroleum and natural gas have led to corrupt practices.

=16. Comoros (CPI score: 26)
Corruption remained a serious problem in Comoros, it lacks rule of law. The nation gained independence from France in 1975. Since then it has witnessed around 20 coups or coup attempts.

=16. Uganda (CPI score: 26)
Even though the country has experienced high growth rates in recent years, corruption remains widespread at all levels.

=14. Guinea (CPI score: 25)
Rampant corruption in Guinea is hindering economic growth and increasing drug trafficking.

=14. Kenya (CPI score: 25)
Political corruption in the post-colonial government of Kenya has had a history which spans the era of the Jomo Kenyatta and Daniel arap Moi’s KANU governments to Mwai Kibaki’s PNU government. Experts estimate that an average urban Kenyan pays 16 bribes in a month.

13. Central African Republic (CPI score: 24)
Growth of Central African Republic is significantly hindered by wide spread corruption. Corruption is rife and undermines timber and diamond industries.

12. Republic of Congo (CPI score: 23)
In spite of its oil wealth, Republic of Congo is one of the most indebted nations in the world. This is largely due to rampant corruption.

=10. Chad (CPI score: 22)
Feud and corruption are blocking Chad’s economic growth. Revenue from oil is not spent responsibly. Corruption rules this nation.

=10. Democratic Republic of Congo (CPI score: 22)
As the nation emerges from a long period of violence and instability, it struggles with a legacy of entrenched corruption at all levels.

=9. Zimbabwe (CPI score: 21)
Corruption in Zimbabwe has become endemic within its political, private and civil sectors. In 2011, finance minister Tendai Biti claimed that at least $1 billion in diamond related revenue owed to the national treasury remains unaccounted for.

8. Burundi (CPI score: 20)
Despite the establishment of anti-corruption agencies, Burundi is remains a corrupt country in sub-Saharan Africa.

=6. Angola (CPI score: 19)
Corruption is a pervasive phenomenon in Angola. The current government is working on containing corruption by enacting laws and enforcing integrity systems.

=6. Guinea Bissau (CPI score: 19)
Guinea Bissau was once hailed as a potential model for African development. Today it is one of the poorest nations in the world. This is largely due to corruption among high-ranking officials.

=4. Eritrea (CPI score: 18)
People in Eritrea are living in a fear-ridden environment. Corruption and greed are rampant among the members of the ruling party.

=4. Libya (CPI score: 18)
Before the downfall of the Qadhafi regime in 2011, weak rule of law and systematic corruption had largely marginalized private sector activity in the nation. Corruption is the biggest problem facing Libya today.

Abacha 2

Former Nigeria’s head of state, late Sani Abacha stole $458 million and hid in bank accounts around the world, while thousands of Nigerians live in poverty.

3. South Sudan (CPI score: 15)

Since independence, South Sudan has taken steps to promote transparency and accountability in an endeavor to eliminate corruption. Unfortunately political will is lacking in effective implementation of anti-corruption policies.

2. Sudan (CPI score: 11)
Top ranking government officials are frequently involved in corrupt practices in Sudan. This has impacted the economic growth negatively. It is a huge challenge to do business in Sudan. Sectors like construction and transportation are prone to corruption.

1. Somalia (CPI score: cool
The Federal Republic of Somalia is located in the horn of Africa. Around 10 million people live in this country. It is the most corrupt nation in the world. There is lack of accountability in receipt and expenditure of public funds. Currently a parliamentary finance committee has been established to oversee all withdrawal transactions from the Central Bank, which is Somalia’s official monetary authority.

If the above-mentioned nations tackle corruption effectively, they will be able to enhance the standard of living of their people significantly.

Source: http://www.richestlifestyle.com/most-corrupt-countries-in-africa/

The Development Of Africa And Asia Through The Lenses Of Technology And Communication

ICT 3Modern technology, through communication and internet have influenced and enhanced Africa’s development, in a way that lives of many throughout the continent have significantly improved. The demand of ICT companies in Africa, have created fast growing mobile and internet markets providing employment to thousands of people.

A country without technology economy can never grow. It is therefore the effort of every government in Africa to invest into ICT facilities to sustain the economy. Technology is therefore essential and important establishing sustainable startup companies and firms in Africa. Today, several major technology trends are shaping the lives of Africans and the economies, with many formidable mobile companies, with communication tools such as the internet and telephone enabling quick access to every part of the world.

Let’s have a glance at the effect of ICT trends in Ghana, choosing MTN as an example. Officially launched in 1994, MTN Group is a multinational telecommunications group, operating in 21 countries throughout Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The MTN Group is listed on the JSE Securities Exchange in South Africa under the share code: “MTN” Detailed Report Data for 30 September 2010, MTN recorded 134,4 million subscribers across its operations in Afghanistan, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Cyprus, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Guinea Republic, Iran, Liberia, Nigeria, Republic of Congo (Congo Brazzaville), Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Uganda, Yemen and Zambia.

MTN MobileMoney,  a service which allows users to perform micro-financing and transfer money from their mobile device, has been adopted across the continent. The basic satisfaction behind this is the answer to customers’ dream of enjoying basic financial services on their mobile phones everywhere they go in Ghana and above all one doesn’t need a bank account to cash his or her money. This service provided by MTN in partnership with banks is also available on the internet. MTN MobileMoney service is recommended to be secure, simple, fast and convenient solution for money transfer and other transactions including reloading of MTN airtime units.

Let’s have a quick glance at India. What is a successful strategic technology? That is an existing technology that has matured, which is the case of India.  The country has become an IT brand among the global countries over the years, with strong policies base in education, well-established telecommunication & infrastructure facilities and favourable market conditions that prevail. Many Indian cities are now holding prominent places in the global IT map. Now India stands out as one of the biggest and fastest growing economies in the world.

The country’s matured technology offers an opportunity for strategic business advantage, continuing expansion in foreign firms owned establishments in India, with its emergence as favorite sector for local Indian investors and talented entrepreneurs. Yet Indian IT industry is still only in its very early stages of development both internationally and domestically and has strong growth potential.

The industry growing at 40 percent per annum between 1994 and 1999, with software exports alone more than 50 percent, earned revenue growth IT industry from $1 billion in 1990 to $8 billion in 2000, envisioned to reach $100 billion in 2008.

“While predicting the future is hard to do, it’s indubitable that the Internet and mobile technology will improve the lives of many Africans in the years to come,” said tech expert Rudy de Waele, who assists global brands and companies with cutting edge open innovation strategy on how to mobilize their business and products through projects, research, strategy, presentations, workshops and brainstorms.

ICT developed and developing continents, such as Africa and Asia hold its own communications future, as talent shines through and the continent becomes leading innovator, manufacturer and exporter throughout the continents and of the rest of the world.

Ebola: The Japanese Cult Aum Shinrikyo’s Attempt To Use The Virus As A Potential Biological Weapon

Aum Shinrikyo’s leader Shoko Asahara

By Scientist/Micro-Surgeon Johan Van Dongen

The Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo, infamous for setting off sarin gas in a Tokyo subway in 1995, also targeted Ebola as a potential biological weapon. In 1992, they sent a medical group of 40 people ostensibly to provide aid, during an Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, their real intention was to collect some Ebola virus, as Amy Smithson, a senior fellow at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, noted in her 2000 report Ataxia.

Even if Aum Shinrikyo had managed to gather samples of the Ebola virus, it would have been extremely difficult to kill large numbers of people in countries with a strong health infrastructure such as Japan. Once the virus had been identified and patients isolated, the pathogen would have been unlikely to spread widely. Still, any terrorist attempting to stoke fears rather than accrue a high body count could have some modicum of success with Ebola. “When talking about bioterror, it’s more about the terror than it is the bio,” said Fauci.

Doctor Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (one of the US National Institutes of Health) stated in an interview that the virus could potentially be used for “small-scale” Ebola attacks, in about three different ways, although each approach would run up against substantial logistical, financial and biological barriers. First, Ebola could be weaponized by taking large quantities of it and inserting them into a small “bomblet” that, once detonated, would spray the virus perhaps 30 feet potentially infecting people as it landed on their faces, on cuts or on hands that they might then touch their eyes with.

In this photo provided by CBS News, the National Institute of Health's Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation's top infectious disease expert, speaks on CBS's "Face the Nation" in Washington. Speaking on the Ebola virus, Fauci said it's perfectly normal to feel anxious about a disease that kills so fast and is ravaging parts of West Africa, but predicts there won't be an outbreak in the U.S. (AP Photo/CBS News, Chris Usher)

Doctor Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (one of the US National Institutes of Health)

“That would be like a hundred people simultaneously touching an Ebola-infected person,” says Fauci. Ebola would not need to be altered in any way to make such a plot work. The virus is already so capable of spreading from person to person via contact with bodily fluids that in its natural state it could do some serious damage.

“Ebola is a very lethal pathogenic virus,” says virologist Robert Garry of Tulane University. “It’s basically weaponizing itself.”

The second, and perhaps easiest, small-scale bioterrorism option would be to recruit individuals for Ebola suicide missions. Such a plan would hinge on injecting Ebola virus into a limited number of people, who would then need to leave west Africa (or wherever the outbreak may be) before becoming symptomatic. Then those individuals would have to get into a public space and projectile vomit or bleed onto others to infect them. Obviously, the plot would need to overcome substantial technical challenges including the extreme weakness that arises from Ebola. If it did succeed, this mode of transmission would not kill thousands of people, but it would set off significant fears.

The third bio-terrorism method appears to be the most unlikely: genetically modifying the virus to enable it to spread more readily, perhaps through the air. As Scientific American reported on September 16, transforming the Ebola virus from a pathogen that primarily affects the circulatory system to one well suited for the respiratory system, would be a major research undertaking. While theoretically the microbe could be manipulated to act in that way, it would be a demanding choice for nefarious actors looking to stockpile harmful materials.

Johan van Dongen

But there’s another delivery mechanism that’s more up a suicide bomber’s alley. They get infected and carry the disease incubating in them but still asymptomatic to their target country. As soon as the symptoms just begin manifesting, the person goes to a highly public area and blows themselves up, spraying contaminated and aerosolized body components all over the surrounding populace, as well as killing or injuring others just from the blast.

That can be done during the cold and flu season when everyone is coughing and sneezing already and you have a prime secondary and tertiary infection path already going in your favor, as well as masking the early Ebola symptoms.

Glenn Ogoro

If we consider Ebola as a weapon of terror, then yes; it’s not likely. How about considering Ebola as a means to combat terrorism? After all, Ebola has all the spread characteristics which can be used to eliminate or weaken hostile or terrorist cells.

First, most terrorist cells now are of Muslim origin and maintain religious and cultural practices which include touching, kissing and washing of their dead. Since these cells by their nature are communal, there is a lot of targeted interaction between members of a cell, even when they are sick.

A simple prisoner exchange could be the link to introducing the virus into these extremist groups/cells. A few infected prisoners injected and left to harbor the virus for a few days right before release is an easy way to get the virus in these cells. New prisoners are usually the center of attention for a few days and constantly greeted with hugs, kisses, and other affectionate contact gestures. Spread.

When said prisoner gets ill; until there are the later signs of hemorrhaging, the virus can easily spread to internal and general caretakers, which I can assume will be a few, and from them to others. Multiplied spread.

Further spread will increase when the body is being prepared for burial (washing, kissing). Spread cycle.

Until the signs are noted by members of terrorist groups, the virus can easily spread rapidly and fast; engulfing a network in a matter of weeks. Even though the spread from one prisoner might not be that much, the impact will be major if considered through a group of released prisoners (as usual).

Early containment could be unlikely, due to the general opposition of western doctrines in these cycles. The forcing of extremist groups to change their practices could mean undermining their religious beliefs and accepting a “western” way, which may not be easily accepted.

In the event where the virus is detected early among members, the effects of panic and fear among a typically close-knit operation can still be deleterious, to the point of slowing or shutting down operations due to reduced interaction, and uncertainty among members.

Biowarfare has been going on for a very long time. In the dark ages, plague victims would be thrown into cities by catapult to break sieges. Smallpox infected blankets were given to Indians by British soldiers in the French and Indian Wars. China still has outbreaks from bio-weapons the Japanese used against them in WWII.

It wouldn’t take a Manhattan Project type effort to develop a bio-weapon and Ebola is so nasty to start with, it doesn’t need much in the way of weaponization. If someone is playing games, field testing this bug and getting their act together for a major attack somewhere in the world, it’s time to build a bunker.

Multiple viral agents have been classified by the CDC as potential weapons of mass destruction or agents for biologic terrorism. Agents such as smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fever viruses, agents of viral encephalitis, and others are of concern because they are highly infectious and relatively easy to produce. Although dispersion might be difficult, the risk is magnified by the fact that large populations are susceptible to these agents and only limited treatment and vaccination strategies exist. Although the risk of large-scale bioterrorism using viral agents is small, public health programs and health care providers must be prepared for this potentially devastating impact on public health.

The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are classified as Category A bio-warfare agents by the Centers for Disease Control. Most known human infections with these viruses have been fatal, and no vaccines or effective therapies are currently available. Filoviruses are highly infectious by the airborne route in the laboratory, but investigations of African outbreaks have shown that person-to-person spread requires direct contact with the virus-containing material. To show you that Ebola can be spread by air and other directions we will publish three scientific Abstracts published in well known scientific institutions.

Lethal experimental infections of rhesus monkeys by aerosolized Ebola virus

Johnson E1, Jaax N, White J, Jahrling P, Int J Exp Pathol. 1995 Aug;76(4):227-36.

Abstract

The potential of atherogenic infection by Ebola virus was established by using a head-only exposure aerosol system. Virus-containing droplets of 0.8-1.2 microns were generated and administered into the respiratory tract of rhesus monkeys via inhalation. Inhalation of viral doses as low as 400 plaque-forming units of virus caused a rapidly fatal disease in 4-5 days.

The illness was clinically identical to that reported for parenteral virus inoculation, except for the occurrence of subcutaneous and venipuncture site bleeding and serosanguineous nasal discharge. Immunocytochemistry revealed cell-associated Ebola virus antigens present in airway epithelium, alveolar pneumocytes, and macrophages in the lung and pulmonary lymph nodes; extracellular antigen was present on mucosal surfaces of the nose, oropharynx, and airways.

Aggregates of the characteristic filamentous virus were present of type I pneumocytes, macrophages, and air spaces of the lung by electron microscopy. Demonstration of fatal aerosol transmission of this virus in monkeys reinforces the importance of taking appropriate precautions to prevent its potential aerosol transmission to humans.

Transmission of Ebola virus (Zaire strain) to uninfected control monkeys in a biocontainment laboratory

Jaax N1, Jahrling P, Geisbert T, Geisbert J, Teele K, McKee K, Nagley D, Johnson E, Jaax G, Peters CLancet. 1995 Dec 23-30;346(8991-8992):1669-71.

Abstract

Secondary transmission of Ebola virus infection in humans is known to be caused by direct contact with infected patients or body fluids. We report transmission of Ebola virus (Zaire strain) to two of three control rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that did not have direct contact with experimentally inoculated monkeys held in the same room.

The two control monkeys died from Ebola virus infections at 10 and 11 days after the last experimentally inoculated monkey had died. The most likely route of infection of the control monkeys was aerosol, oral or conjunctival exposure to virus-laden droplets secreted or excreted from the experimentally inoculated monkeys. These observations suggest approaches to the study of routes of transmission to and among humans.

Lethal experimental infection of rhesus monkeys with Ebola-Zaire (Mayinga) virus by the oral and conjunctival route of exposure.

Davis K.J, Geisbert TJ, Vogel P, Jaax GP, Topper M,J ahrling PB. Lancet 1996 Feb; 120 (2): 140-55.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The source of infection or mode of transmission of Ebola virus to human index cases of Ebola fever has not been established. Field observations in outbreaks of Ebola fever indicate that secondary transmission of Ebola virus is linked to improper needle hygiene, direct contact with infected tissue or fluid samples, and close contact with infected patients.

While it is presumed that the virus infects through either break in the skin or contact with mucous membranes, the only two routes of exposure that have been experimentally validated are parental inoculation and aerosol inhalation. Epidemiologist evidence suggests that aerosol exposure is not an important means of virus transmission in natural outbreaks of human Ebola fever; this study was designed to verify that Ebola virus could be effectively transmitted by oral or conjunctival exposure in nonhuman primates.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were exposed to Ebola-Zaire (Mayinga) virus orally (N=4), conjunctival (N=4), or by intramuscular inoculation (N=1, virus-positive control).

RESULTS

Four of seven monkeys exposed by the conjunctival route, three of four monkeys exposed by the oral route, and the intramuscularly inoculated positive control monkey were successfully infected with Ebola-Zaire (Mayinga). Seven monkeys died of Ebola fever between days 7 and 8 post-exposure, but one of the monkeys given aggressive supportive therapy and a platelet transfusion; lived until day 12 post-exposure.

Belgian scientist and discoverer of Ebola, Peter Piot, knew everything about the virus but wouldn’t say publicly was a medical crime against Africa, because his country was involved.

CONCLUSIONS

Findings from the experimental study confirm that Ebola virus can be effectively transmitted via the oral or conjunctival route of exposure in nonhuman primates and absolutely can be used as a bio-warfare weapon.