Sopravvivendo A Scortese Roma Attraverso La Musica Dei Miei Musicisti Preferiti

VendittiAntonello Venditti, uno dei musicisti preferiti in Italia.

La vita è molto dura in generale ma a volte è più difficile quando si vive in un ambiente ostile. Negli anni novanta a Roma, la vita era come il Sudafrica dell’Apartheid. Non c’è amore e nessuna cura da parte di chiunque e se siete fortunati ad essere amati, le sorelle romane mostrano ancora un po ‘ discriminazione.

Se determinato a sopravvivere, si lotta per sopravvivere quando in piedi nella neve o fuoco. Questo è esattamente quello che ho fatto, ma attraverso l’ispirazione di alcuni musicisti ho ammirato. Ho ascoltato i miei musicisti preferiti come Lucio Dalla – Attenti al Lupo, Umberto Tozzi – Gente di Mare, Andrea Bocelli-Con te patiro, Laura Pausini ecc.

Ma un musicista italiano, cui la musica mi ha ispirato per sopravvivere ogni avversità a Roma era Antonello Venditti. La sua canzone meraviglioso chiamato ‘Amici Mai’ ridotto miei dolori, mi ha fatti dimenticare i miei problemi, riempito il mio stomaco quando ho fame e mi ha spinto a vivere una vita felice e libera dalla criminalità a Roma.

Mio grazie a tutti questi grandi musicisti loro musica ha cambiato la mia vita a Roma.

Listen to Antonello Venditti sings ‘Amici Mai.’

NB. (This short article is to try if I still remember my Italian language, because since 1993, I left the Italian community I’ve never spoken the language.)

Zika virus: Your questions answered

zika childBy Gretchen Vogel, Jon Cohen, Martin Enserin

Where did the Zika virus come from?

First isolated in 1947 and first described in a paper in 1952, Zika has long been known to occur in Africa and Southeast Asia—but until a decade ago, fewer than 15 cases had been described in the scientific literature. In 2007, the virus caused a big outbreak on Yap, an island group in the Western Pacific that is part of the Federated States of Micronesia; since then, it went on a major tour of other Pacific Islands before it landed in Brazil, from where it started spreading rapidly to other parts of South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean.

Why has it exploded so suddenly?

There may have been big outbreaks in Africa and Asia in the past that went undetected; scientists weren’t paying much attention. But the current massive epidemic was an event waiting to happen. Latin America has huge numbers of A. aegypti, also known as the yellow fever mosquito, an important vector for Zika. (The Asian tiger mosquito, A. albopictus, which is on the rise around the world, is believed to be a vector as well.) In addition, nobody in the Americas had immunity to the virus. Travel makes it worse. Aedes mosquitoes don’t fly more than a few hundred meters during their lives; Zika travels from city to city and country to country when infected people get on cars, buses, trains, and planes.

These combined factors meant that the virus had the ability to spread far and fast once it had arrived.

Will Zika spread to the United States and Europe?

Both the United States and Europe have already seen “imported cases”—people who arrived from a Zika-affected country carrying the virus. This was widely expected given the size of the epidemic in Latin America. The key question is whether there will be local outbreaks—that is, mosquitoes spreading the virus from person to person. There’s definitely a chance; A. albopictus occurs in several countries in southern Europe (and it may move north), while the southern and eastern United States have populations of both A. aegypti and A. albopictus.

If so, scientists expect outbreaks to be much smaller than elsewhere, based on past experience with mosquito-borne diseases. Recent dengue outbreaks in Florida, Texas, and Hawaii haven’t sickened more than a few hundred people, for instance; an outbreak of a mosquito-borne disease called chikungunya in northern Italy in 2007—which started when a man infected with the virus arrived from India—ended after 197 cases. One reason that outbreaks in these countries tend to be smaller may be that people spend less time outside and live in houses that are more difficult for mosquitoes to enter; mosquito population sizes may play a role as well.

Do we know for sure that Zika is causing a rise in birth defects?

No. There is strong circumstantial evidence that areas in Brazil hit hard by Zika have experienced a sharp increase in the number of babies born with microcephaly, a condition in which the head is much smaller than normal because the brain fails to develop properly. But it will take at least several months before the results from the first case-control studies of pregnant women infected with Zika are available. Doctors in Brazil first noticed an increase in cases of microcephaly during ultrasounds of pregnant women in June and July, a few months after the sudden rise in Zika infections. Fetal medicine expert Manoel Sarno, who works at the Federal University of Bahia, says the pattern of brain damage he is seeing now looks distinct from microcephaly caused by other infections, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) or rubella. He and his colleagues started a study in August that is following women infected with Zika during their pregnancy; the results could come out late summer. Similar studies are underway elsewhere in Brazil and in Colombia.

Are there other urgent questions that scientists are asking?

Plenty. Scientists have difficulty determining who has been infected and who hasn’t because diagnostic tests have limitations. The most accurate tests—which detect viral RNA in a patient’s blood—only work within a week of the first symptoms appearing. After that time, researchers can test for antibodies in the blood. But current tests for Zika antibodies cross-react with antibodies to dengue, which is so widespread in Brazil—and much of the rest of Latin America—that almost all adults have antibodies to it. That makes it difficult to tell whether the mother of a baby born with microcephaly was infected with Zika earlier in her pregnancy.

Researchers would also like to know how often Zika is transmitted through sexual contact. One U.S. scientist who caught the virus in Africa passed it to his wife after he got home in 2008, and a second case of suspected sexual transmission happened in French Polynesia in 2013. But researchers have no idea what the risk is. (“If I was a man and I got Zika symptoms, I’d wait a couple of months before having unprotected sex,” virologist Scott Weaver of the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston recently told The New York Times.)

What drugs are available against Zika?

None. Until last year, Zika was so rare and believed to be so mild, that nobody bothered to look for candidate drugs. Even now that the virus is surging, it’s not obvious that there’s a big market for an antiviral drug, because the vast majority of those infected have very few symptoms or none at all. And it’s not clear that a drug could prevent birth defects when women contract Zika during pregnancy; by the time they become infected and develop symptoms, it may be too late to prevent such damage. A vaccine against Zika may offer more hope of preventing microcephaly.

And when can we expect a vaccine?

That will take years. Several groups have begun to make candidate Zika vaccines, a process that will take at least several months. Most of these vaccine approaches are piggybacking on existing vaccines. For example, many vaccines are made by stitching proteins from a pathogen’s surface into a harmless virus or vector; that is now being tried with Zika using those same vectors. Once a candidate vaccine is made, it will have to be tested in animals before humans.Human trials begin with small safety studies, then move on to larger studies that test whether the candidate product works. All of that usually takes 10 to 15 months. Given the urgency, the timeline could be compressed, but even so, Anthony Fauci, the director of the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, told STAT that it may be at least 5 to 7 years before a Zika vaccine is commercially available.

Then what can we do to stop the spread of the virus?

Stop mosquitoes from biting people. Countries and communities can try to reduce mosquito populations by removing the small water reservoirs—such as flower pots, empty bottles, and discarded tires—in which Aedes mosquitoes like to breed. People can also reduce their personal exposure—especially important for women who are or might become pregnant—by putting screens on windows, covering their skin, and using insect repellant. However, history has shown that the impact of mosquito control on epidemics is modest at best, and they’re difficult to sustain.

There must be better ways to control mosquitoes?

Not yet but they’re in the works. A British biotech called Oxitec—which was recently purchased by Intrexon, a U.S. synthetic biology company—has developed A. aegyptimosquitoes containing a gene construct that will kill their offspring before they reach adulthood. When massive numbers of male individuals of this strain are released in the wild, they will mate with local females, producing offspring that are not viable, which has been shown to make a dent in the population.

In another line of research, scientists are infecting A. aegypti with a bacterium named Wolbachia, which reduces mosquitoes’ ability to transmit diseases. The researchers developing these approaches were mostly thinking about dengue, but Zika’s surge is giving their attempts a new sense of urgency. But again, it will take several years before these strategies are ready for prime time.

Life As Immigrant At The Notorious Pantanella In Via Casilina Rome

Ex Pastificio Pantanella occupato da centinaia di immigrati asiatici provenienti dal Pakistan e Bangladesh.Ex Pastificio Pantanella occupied by hundreds of Asian immigrants from Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Roma Novembre 1990 Ex Pastificio Pantanella occupato da centinaia di immigrati asiatici provenienti dal Pakistan, Bangladesh, Africani tra cui (Joel Savage) Panoramica della Pantanella. Rome

As a child growing up in a strongly religious family, I was thought that everything which is opposite to the teachings of the Holy Bible, including laziness is a sin. I tried my best to live a clean life. We were thought to believe that Israel, Jerusalem, and other Biblical countries were all in heaven, without a slight knowledge those countries were on the same earth we are living today.

When I left my family looking for a job, I tried to be sincere and prevented doing anything wrong which could land me in jail. I read that jail changes people’s attitude to be good or worse. But I wasn’t interested to know the positive or negative influences of jail on people. My only interest is never to be there because it’s not the right place for me.

In the year 1990, from Lagos, Nigeria, I made a transit in Rome, on my way to German. In Rome, I was detained at the Fiumicino airport. The Italian immigration regularly does that to many foreigners, especially Africans. Like a tourist, I walked around the airport lounge without a room to sleep and food for three days. On the third, I was really starving, so I approached one of the immigration officials and said to him that I am hungry. He looked at my face and asked me “Am I your father?” Then he walked away.

Without knowing what the officials have in store for me, I handed over an application for asylum as a journalist and it worked, because I have some few publications over my profession on me. On the fourth day, from nowhere came one of the immigration officers, he said to me: “Your application has been accepted, today the police will come to take you to Rome.” I was shocked beyond expression.

Ex Pastificio Pantanella occupato da centinaia di immigrati asiatici provenienti dal Pakistan e Bangladesh.Ex Pastificio Pantanella occupied by hundreds of Asian immigrants from Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Roma 31 gennaio 1991 Ex Pastificio Pantanella occupato da centinaia di immigrati asiatici provenienti dal Pakistan e Bangladesh. Le forze dell’Ordine sgombrano la Pantanella. Rome, January 31, 1991 Ex Pastificio Pantanella occupied by hundreds of Asian immigrants from Pakistan and Bangladesh. The Police evacuate the Pantanella.

 The good Samaritan didn’t only deliver the unexpected message, but he pulled out from his pocket a number of notes and said to me: “I don’t want my colleagues to see me giving you money, buy some food to eat at the airport.” I didn’t take the money. I told him: “This important information you have given to me has taken all the hunger away, thank you.” He walked away with his money.

On the fourth day, the police came, just as the officer told me and took me in a police car to the city, Rome, and left me there to fight for my survival. Without anywhere to sleep, I passed all my nights at the Central Train Station. Among other Africans, we watched a big television screen during the day to forget our misery, then in the night, I go to sleep at my hiding place. The police and the workers at the train station never discovered the place I slept.

After some time, I discovered places where I could eat every day without paying for food. I could take my bath and take some clothes. One of such places was at ‘Via Dandolo.’ Daniela, the head of the Caritas (Charity) at Via Dandolo, was a very good woman, but one of her female workers was a very bad woman. A thief. Since we had no address, our letters passed through the Caritas at Via Dandola and this woman took the opportunity to steal money from our letters.

I caught her twice, so I wasn’t surprised when I lost the 10 pounds a friend sent me from England, but I didn’t tell Daniela about it. Through the Caritas, I had my initial lessons and attended classes to learn the Italian. I was one of the best immigrants who could write and speak the language fluently, yet my life was miserable because I was still sleeping at the train station.

In Rome, I was robbed, admitted and operated at a hospital, but the nurse refused to touch me, because of my color, thus; every morning when on duty, she calls someone to attend to me, but she had time for every Italian patient at the hospital. I was once sitting in the hospital’s garden after the operation, when an Italian old man, one of the patients came close to me, looked at my face and said to me: “Marocchino motaccizoa.” – an insult, after mistakenly taken me as a Moroccan. I didn’t say a word.

Then all of a sudden, as if it was announced on the radio, all the immigrants in Rome, without accommodation, discovered an abandoned Pasta factory called ‘Pantanella.’ Pantanella is notoriously known for all criminal activities, including drug peddling and crime, similar to drug cartel zones of Mexico. One needs strength, courage, heart and braveness to survive at that place. Italians think they are brave, but many of them dare to pass Via Casilina, the street Pantanella is located in the night.

That was the place I lived and worked as a toilet cleaner for thousands of immigrants, using six containers as toilets, to raise money to feed. I was employed by the Muslim head at the place. It’s terrible and frightening to live at Pantenella. It wasn’t a prison, but the place, I think was tough like Alcatraz, because of the criminal activities many illegal immigrants engaged in feeding.

 

Ex Pastificio Pantanella occupato da centinaia di immigrati asiatici provenienti dal Pakistan e Bangladesh.Ex Pastificio Pantanella occupied by hundreds of Asian immigrants from Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Roma 31 gennaio 1991 Ex Pastificio Pantanella occupato da centinaia di immigrati asiatici provenienti dal Pakistan e Bangladesh. Le forze dell’Ordine sgombrano la Pantanella. Scoppia un incendio durante lo sgombero Rome, January 31, 1991 Ex Pastificio Pantanella occupied by hundreds of Asian immigrants from Pakistan and Bangladesh. The Police evacuate the Pantanella.A fire during the evacuation

The abandoned factory accommodated both soft and hardened criminals from various countries, including Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Africa etc. I lived in Pantanella for four months, and the Italian government tired of the crimes going on in that abandoned Pasta factory ejected all the foreigners.

But the Italian government did something great for the African immigrants. Something we weren’t expecting. The government paid for two weeks stay in a hotel for all the Africans, with the ultimatum that before the two weeks expired, we should find a place on our own to live.

Through a very good sympathetic woman called Nana, (she died in Rome a few years ago) I got a job as a houseboy to serve one journalist called Claudio Lavazza, working at television station TG2, belonging to the former Italian Prime Minister, Sylvio Berlusconi. He provided me accommodation and paid me well. Besides, he gave me the new version of Fiat Cinque Cento (500) to drive. It may be likely that I was the first black man in the entire Italy to drive the new Fiat Cinque Cento when it freshly came out. I met other journalist friends of Claudio, including Michele Cucuzza.

After three years, I said goodbye to Rome and returned to Africa. I married and returned to Europe once again but this time choosing Amsterdam. ‘Overseas Chronicle: The Rome and Amsterdam Experience’ is a book once started you’ll find it hard to put away, because of the shocking intriguing stories in the book. Find out more of what happened to me in Rome and later in Holland, which led me to detention in Amsterdam.

 

Come sono sopravvissuto come un immigrato nella Pantanella pericoloso può essere letto in: 
Chronicle 3

Your Enemy Gets Mad, If He Fails To See You The Way He Wants

Enemy 5

No one gives birth to a child and name him or her ‘Enemy,’ thus; I haven’t met anyone yet called ‘Enemy.’ Yet an enemy exists, the reason the dictionary defines it: As a person who is actively opposed or hostile to someone or something.

What causes enmity between people? I watched a program of a man that hates his neighbour. According to him, his neighbour’s stereo was too noisy and many times when he asks him to reduce the volume he refuses to yield to his demand.

I understand him, especially after the week’s hard work, you wish to have a happy and quiet lovely weekend, reading your favourite books and newspapers, but that neighbour of yours has denied you all those good moments you’re longing for.

At times you might be an enemy or someone might hate you for doing no wrong, just because of your efforts to live a happy life. Do you know that your hard work can sometimes spark jealousy and hatred from an empire of deceitful enemies?

Do you know that even your successful marriage sometimes makes you an enemy, because your neighbour’s marriage is on the rocks? How do you handle such situations when you haven’t done anything wrong but someone madly hates you?

I do hear people often say: The problem was beyond my control, the reason I used food as a means of consolation, became an alcoholic or drug addict. That’s really a big mistake. When you’re experiencing problems, you don’t live on destructive measures to solve your problems, you need to fight those destructive elements.

Years back when I arrived in Europe, among other foreigners, I came to Italy at a time I don’t know anyone. I slept at the Central Train Station in Rome for many days. (I have revisited Rome to see where I slept in the early nineties) I saw that the hard conditions were taking its toll on some of the homeless Africans.

Some became alcoholics, drug addicts, involved in drug trafficking and some decided to go back to Africa. I encouraged them to stay but many of them returned to Africa. Today, I’m no more an illegal immigrant. Above all, I live with my wife and three children in Europe. I wake up every morning at 5 AM and go to work like other workers, enjoying happy union with my family when I’m come at back home.

I know what the enemy wants. I wasn’t ready to be a destitute, alcoholic, drug addict or courier. If I have made it, then you can. Never blame anyone for your failure in life. Don’t let your enemy be happy. Fight those destructive forces to make them mad.

An African Female Politician’s Bitter Experience Of Racism In Catholic Center Rome

 

Italy 1

Cécile Kyenge: Has suffered a great deal since she became Italy’s first black minister.

Worldwide, governments, associations and organizations, continue to fight for women trapped under the burden of religion, politics, discrimination, sexual abuse and violence. Many underestimate and regard women as domestic care providers, thus they are denied the respect they deserve in the society, despite many occupying high positions within different professional careers.

To create a peaceful society and discourage violence and racism, racial offence carries a heavy fine or possibly jail sentence in certain countries. For example in Britain, a person who uses threatening, abusive or insulting words or behaviour, is guilty of an offence with intention to stir up racial hatred. The offence carries a maximum sentence of seven years imprisonment or a fine, but this is not the case in many European countries, including Italy, Belgium and Holland. Racial comments against others pass  daily with impunity in these countries.

Italy is one of the countries which has broken every rule in regard to racial issues, in the name of Catholicism. The Mafioso infested country encourages racism, sodomy and child abuse, right under the nose of the Vatican City. Lack of good leadership, corruption and Mafioso activities, have spread Italians all over the world like a virus. Instead of dealing with corruption and crime which have weakened the country’s economic and industrial infrastructure, Italian government promotes racism.

Cecile Kyenge

Cécile Kyenge

Since Cécile Kyenge became Italy’s first black minister of integration, she has openly been insulted by the media and many politicians with impunity. Cristiano Za Garibaldi, the deputy mayor of the town of Diano Marina in the northern region of Liguria, posted on his public Facebook page that Miss Kyenge used to be on a road patronized by prostitutes for soliciting clients, of whom many were black. Racist taunts come in daily against her. At a rally someone hurled bananas at her.

Roberto Calderoli, a senior party member, also last year compared the black minister Cecile Kyenge to an orangutan. How can a minister suffer this kind of discrimination and racism, while European leaders meet daily in the heart of Brussels, to discuss political issues without doing anything about this?

Even though Diano Marina apologized after making the offensive comments on his Facebook page, in any civilized world or country, such a person shouldn’t continue to serve Italy in any office. Certain comments shouldn’t be tolerated. Racial problems whether it affects white or black shouldn’t be encouraged in any way.

America always demonstrates to be a great country on such issues, whether the president of the country is black or white, but recent racial activities in the country, reveal America now encourages racism than discouraging it.

Nevertheless, during the inauguration day of Barack Obama, among other politicians and leaders who were at the US Embassy in Brussels, was Philip de Winter, the leader of ‘Vlaamse Belang’ a political party which seeks the interest of the Flemish people and speaks much against foreigners. Unfortunately, he wasn’t accepted to attend the inauguration. He went home disappointed and furious. This is how it should be if the world cares about peace, racism and discrimination.

Italy 3

I find it a total disgrace, as European leaders converge at Brussels daily for summit and European Union programs, yet such disturbing racial issues of this kind going on in Italy and many places, but haven’t become an issue of concern to European leaders.

Racial problems should be a priority in every part of the world, because when violence erupts, it affects everyone. They shouldn’t ignore because it doesn’t affect them. A healthy nation thrives on peace, justice and respect but not racism and violence.

 

Scientific History of Ebola And The Controversial Statue Of King Leopold II

Collins

Mr. Collins Nweke

AN OPEN LETTER TO MR. COLINS NWEKE

By Johan Van Dongen

Mr. Collins Nweke is a Belgian politician of the Green Party currently serving a second term of office as Councillor at the Ostend City Council in West Flanders province. Collins Nweke is of Nigerian origin, and settled in Belgium in 1993. He is the first and so far the only non-Belgian born person to be elected to political office in West Flanders.

He is particularly active in social welfare and ethnic minority issues. He stood as a candidate for the European Parliament in the 2014 elections. Nweke has served as Chief Executive and Chairman of Nigerians in Diaspora in Europe (NIDO Europe), and has been active in consultancy and advocacy in the field of socio-economic development for Nigeria and for Africa in general.

Dear Mr. Collins Nweke,

Due to the relatively independence of the East and West blocks and the closed character of the Soviet ideology, there was little reason to speak of any influence of one and another. Therefore, research activities for offensive or defensive purposes were mainly, conducted under military auspices with high degree of secrecy and controversial testing programs independently. Several countries began programs to develop Bio-Warfare programs following World War I (WWI) including Britain, Belgium, Canada, France, Holland, Italy, Soviet Union and Poland, as described by Bellamy and Freedman in their book: ‘Bio-terrorism’ in 2001.

So Mr. Nweke, although biological warfare was the subject of detailed examination pursuing WWI, However, the most infamous biological weapon program (BWP) was probably that begun by Japan in 1932, in occupied Manchuria. According to Sheldon H. Harris in his book ‘Factories Of Death,’ he describes the Japanese Biological Warfare development between 1932-1945. But more importantly he also described the American Cover-Up.

johan-2

The writer: Micro-surgeon Johan Van Dongen

Mr. Nweke, just for reference, in my book: “Pleidooi voor de Aap”, English title “Pleaded for the Ape”, and “Aids and Ebola the greatest crime in medical history against mankind,” I described that from 1931 to 1945, the Japanese Army engaged in biological warfare (BW) and chemical warfare (CW) experiments using live human subjects, which led to the first widespread use of bacteriological agents in the war. This definitive work about Unit 731 (the Japanese Army’s bacteriological warfare center) and its commander, lieutenant General Ishii Shiro, is the result of more than 20 years of research, including 12 field trips to China in the thirties and forties of the last century.

These actions changed the scope of research activities on ordinary citizens and specific Africans on highly contagious diseases of military importance dramatically. Thus, establishments of military research centers for aggressive, offensive, and defensive research developments began under high 2 secrecy, in both East and West blocs as also published by Klietmann and many others in 2001.

I assure you Mr. Nweke, there can be no doubt as to the fact that the ideological East-West conflict was one of the central problems of the globe of the last century, a period of tension driven by a complex interplay of ideological, political, and economical factors contradictory to one another, which led to shifts between cautious cooperation and often better superpower rivalry over decades. The foundation was the bipolar military competition between the two superpowers the USA and the USSR and their respective allies and developing countries, thus this era was more portrayed as an era of “proxy war” because of its global impact on the rest parts of the world.

Major research and development programs first emerged in the late 1930s and early 1940s. For instance, the development of biological weapons program which involved an extensive lists of causative agents of Plague, Glanders, Ebola, Aids etc, at Camp Detrick, Frederick, Maryland in USA, as the headquarters of the arm’s BW research was implemented in 1943, with approximately 3,800 military and 100 civil personnel. Where many of the efforts involved military researchers, other from Public Health Service, other Federal Agencies and Civilian Research Institutions were also involved.

Historical records show that USA, UK, Canada and the former Soviet Union (FSU) justified the importance of their program because they have learned that since 1937 Japan had conducted a large biological warfare program, including human test, at its Unit 731 in Manchuria.

The German army was considered to be the first to use weapons of mass destruction, both biological and chemical agents, during WWI, followed by Italian biological warfare programs.

Mr. Nweke, as a Belgium politician and very well educated, you should know by now that although all military research establishments in general are covert, the scale of secrecy, intensity of research, span of time, area of competence and precedence in specific agents. In the FSU research activities, these level were planned and controlled by state and kept under high secrecy till the collapse of the Soviet Union. In most cases, it is incomparable to that of the research approaches known in Western hemisphere.

For instance, the existence of large-scale production and storage capabilities of genetically manipulated vaccines, among other BW agents were some of the factors that distinguishes the Soviet Programs or in area of defense, the development of live plague vaccine based on EV76 line NIIEG used for more than 7 decades and continued to be used in some member states of FSU. This phenomenon is respectively described intensively by Ken Alibek in 1999, Henderson also in 1999 and by Zliniskas in 2006; and so far te work of investigative scientist and micro-surgeon Johan van Dongen.

Further scientific prove to Mr. Collins Nweke

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever the precursor of Ebola

The development of different forms of plague 7 vaccines, like non cellular or synthetic, vaccines also known as “chemical vaccine” proposed to be used as booster vaccine or an “aerosol vaccine” in combating disease outbreaks in case of Bio-attack or Bioterrorism were described by Alexandrov in 1962. These are some of unique achievements of FSU, for which no comparable studies are available in Western hemisphere.

In Africa, there are many species of animals that serve as natural reservoirs for the viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. For example, the strain of Ebola causing the current outbreak, Ebola Zaire, is believed to have been transferred to humans by fruit bats belonging to the Pteropodidae family, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This bat family, is also the natural reservoir for the Marburg virus.

Marburg virus has been linked to the recent death of a man in Uganda, as reported by the Washington Post. Like Ebola, Marburg belongs to the Filovirus family of viruses and is spread among humans when a person comes into contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person. Another virus found in Africa that causes hemorrhagic fever is Lassa virus, which is an Arenavirus and is predominantly found in West Africa.

Unlike Ebola and Marburg, the reservoir host of Lassa is a rodent known as the Multimammate rat. Whereas the Filoviruses Ebola and Marburg cannot be spread through the air, Lassa virus can be transmitted when tiny particles of rat feces or urine containing the virus become airborne, according to the Ohio Department of State Infectious Disease Control Manual (ODH-IDCM).

All of the virus families that can cause hemorrhagic fever share certain characteristics, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. They all have a basic structure that consists of a core of ribonucleic acid (RNA) as the genetic material, surrounded by a fatty material.

Harry Hoogstraal and the discovery in our times of Ebola

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), nowadays known as Ebola, came to modern medical attention in 1944–1945, when about 200 Soviet military personnel were infected while assisting peasants in war-devastated Crimea (Ukrainian SSR). Subsequent epidemics occurred in Astrakhan (1953–1968) and Rostov Oblasts (1963–1971) of USSR and in Bulgaria (1953–1973). There have been numerous lesser outbreaks in southern USSR and, in 1976 outbreaks in Pakistan.

However, it was only in 1967, when Soviet workers first used the generally accepted newborn white mouse (NWM) inoculation technique for CCHF virus isolation and study, that the etiologic agent could be characterized anti-genetically, physio-chemically, and morphologically. Collaboration in 1968 between the Soviet and American experts, M. P. Chumakov and Jordi Casals demonstrated the serologically identical properties of virus strains from human CCHF patients and corpses, lower mammals, and ticks from Asian and European areas of the USSR and from Bulgaria, Congo (Zaire), Nigeria, and Pakistan.

These results confirmed and broadened in subsequent studies, enabled serological and other research tools to be developed for producing identifiable antibodies and antigens required in experimental procedures and seroepidemiological surveys and obtaining scientific evidence to demonstrate vector and reservoir species and virus dynamics in nature. CCHF virus, a member (without generic assignment) of the family Bunyaviridae, is the prototype of the CCHF serogroup, which also includes Hazara virus (from Ixodes redikorzevi parasitizing alpine voles in Pakistan). CCHF virus is enzootic in the Palearctic, Oriental, and Ethiopian Faunal Regions, chiefly in steppe, savanna, semi-desert, and foothill biotopes where 1 or 2 Hyalomma species are the predominant ticks parasitizing domestic and wild animals.

Presence of the virus has been demonstrated by isolations from humans fore instance in Senegal, Nigeria, Central African Empire, Zaire, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Egypt. As the current concern of bioterrorism with the use the growing of Ebola agents and its global concern, full understanding of research achievements of the FSU/CIS on the subject is indispensible.

Today more than ever, global threats requires much greater collaboration between governments, experts, institutions, in creating a global grass–roots of networks of research and discussion, to achieve global solutions in developing, an efficient, universal, acceptable vaccine most importantly against the Ebola plague, as the most possible way to avoid bioterrorism on public health and the concerns about security at the global level.

Thus, a long term sustainable schedules of congresses and partnership between Russia, and other leading states on the research activities of the pathogens in concerns in the world will be the best option for the solution, development of prophylactic measures against the pathogens, in creating a think-tank, comprising ranges of experts from different countries of interest, initiating dialogs, enhancing transparency and better cooperation in both sides.

Reference:

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/15.4.307 307-417 First published online: 22 May 1979.

Mr. Nweke, what is your role as a politician for Africans in your motherland and Africa in general?

Mr. Nweke, as an African politician in Belgium, one thing you should know is that, it’s not your position as the only African politician in Belgium that matters, but your services to both Belgians and the African Community in Belgium. Are you pleased about the statues of Leopold and streets named after him after maiming and killing over ten million Africans, including innocent children in Congo, when there is no statue of Adolf Hitler for killing six million Jews? What are you doing as an African politician to help your fellow Africans in your mother land, to prevent being used as Guinea pigs to test drugs manufactured in Europe and America?

I see no reason for attacking Mr. Joel Savage on LinkedIn’s platform, for encouraging Africans to read, because he wants Africans who don’t like to read, to stop saying that Aids and Ebola are curses from God and acknowledged the facts that they are medical crimes committed by the West and America against Africans.

Mr. Nweke, you came to Belgium in 1993 and Mr. Savage came in the year 2000, but it seems you did little or haven’t done anything at all for the African Community in Antwerp, so they don’t know you. Because when Antwerp’s African Community were scared to go for treatment in Stuivenberg Hospital, due to the abnormal high death rate of Africans in that hospital, the African Community asked Mr. Savage as a journalist to go there to investigate and he did.

The results of his investigations is now published as Little Boygium-Wonderful Experience.’ His book has made Stuivenberg Hospital one of the safest hospitals in Antwerp at the moment. When I asked Mr. Savage why he did the investigation, he told me that, Belgium is a country you don’t need to trust, because if they can erect statue and named streets after a criminal who killed and maimed over ten thousand Africans, including children, then they can definitely kill Africans for body organs.

Mr. Nweke, I would like to leave with this advice, you can always clear your voice or sing for someone to feel your presence, but do it at the right time. I’m sorry I don’t know your significance as an African politician in Belgium, when Mr. Savage is doing the work you suppose to do for the African Community.

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