Dutch Study: Most New HIV Infections Could Be Prevented With Pill

HIV patients

The pill that prevents HIV is not widely available in Europe. If it were, it would probably drop infections considerably, researchers say.

The pill that prevents HIV is not widely available in Europe. If it were, it would probably drop infections considerably, researchers say.

Nearly two-thirds of new HIV infections in gay and bisexual men in the Netherlands could be prevented with antiretroviral treatment, according to a study published on Wednesday.

This treatment — also known as pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP — is not widely available in Europe. It’s not clear whether it would lead to a similar drop in infections in the U.S., where a growing number of gay and bisexual men are already getting PrEP as Truvada, the once-a-day blue pill.

Still, the researchers say that the new study adds to other research showing the public health benefits of PrEP, especially when combined with frequent HIV testing.

“I hope that this study contributes to making the case for making PrEP available to as many individuals as possible,” Oliver Ratmann, an epidemiologist at Imperial College London and leader of the new study, told BuzzFeed News.

Ratmann and his colleagues looked at the medical records of 617 Dutch men who were diagnosed with HIV between July 1996 and December 2010.

The Netherlands, like several other countries in northern Europe, is famous among medical researchers because the government routinely collects health and demographic data on citizens, and then makes the anonymized data available for scientific research. “All hospitals have to comply, which is why we have such a comprehensive dataset,” Ratmann said. “Almost everyone with HIV is in it.”
                           Ratmann’s team looked in particular at the specific genetic code of HIV in each of the 617 men. The virus’s DNA sequence mutates rapidly as it spreads from person to person. By comparing these sequences, “you can say that patient A did not infect patient B, because sequences are so dissimilar.”
                          With this approach, it’s not possible to determine for certain who infected who. But for each infected man, the researchers were able to identify three or four other men who could have infected him. By weighing these various probabilities, the researchers found that an estimated 71% of HIV transmissions came from men who had not been diagnosed, and 43% from men in their first year of infection, underscoring the importance of regular HIV testing.
                           The scientists’ mathematical modeling also found that 66% of the infections could have been prevented if: half of all men at risk of HIV were tested annually; those who tested positive were immediately put on treatment; and half of those who tested negative were put on PrEP.

                            The results are particularly exciting, Ratmann said, because the Netherlands already has a high level of HIV treatment once a person tests positive. These results suggest that proactively treating men before the infection could drop infection rates even more.That high level of treatment, however, also makes the Netherlands quite different from the U.S., noted Dawn Smith of the CDC’s Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.

“The underlying analysis methods are convincing, and findings are in the ballpark of what I would expect,” Smith told BuzzFeed News by email. Still, “this study’s direct applicability to the United States would be a bit different in that we don’t have the high coverage of antiretroviral treatment or retention in care rates here that are present in the Netherlands.”

Although PrEP awareness in the U.S. is on the rise, Smith added, there are still two notable barriers to making it more common. Too few gay and bisexual men know about it (or where to get it), and too few doctors know about it or know which of their patients would benefit from it.

Link of original article: http://realhealthtreatments.info/dutch-study-most-new-hiv-infections-could-be-prevented-with-pill

Ebola: The Japanese Cult Aum Shinrikyo’s Attempt To Use The Virus As A Potential Biological Weapon

Aum Shinrikyo’s leader Shoko Asahara

By Scientist/Micro-Surgeon Johan Van Dongen

The Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo, infamous for setting off sarin gas in a Tokyo subway in 1995, also targeted Ebola as a potential biological weapon. In 1992, they sent a medical group of 40 people ostensibly to provide aid, during an Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, their real intention was to collect some Ebola virus, as Amy Smithson, a senior fellow at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, noted in her 2000 report Ataxia.

Even if Aum Shinrikyo had managed to gather samples of the Ebola virus, it would have been extremely difficult to kill large numbers of people in countries with a strong health infrastructure such as Japan. Once the virus had been identified and patients isolated, the pathogen would have been unlikely to spread widely. Still, any terrorist attempting to stoke fears rather than accrue a high body count could have some modicum of success with Ebola. “When talking about bioterror, it’s more about the terror than it is the bio,” said Fauci.

Doctor Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (one of the US National Institutes of Health) stated in an interview that the virus could potentially be used for “small-scale” Ebola attacks, in about three different ways, although each approach would run up against substantial logistical, financial and biological barriers. First, Ebola could be weaponized by taking large quantities of it and inserting them into a small “bomblet” that, once detonated, would spray the virus perhaps 30 feet potentially infecting people as it landed on their faces, on cuts or on hands that they might then touch their eyes with.

In this photo provided by CBS News, the National Institute of Health's Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation's top infectious disease expert, speaks on CBS's "Face the Nation" in Washington. Speaking on the Ebola virus, Fauci said it's perfectly normal to feel anxious about a disease that kills so fast and is ravaging parts of West Africa, but predicts there won't be an outbreak in the U.S. (AP Photo/CBS News, Chris Usher)

Doctor Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (one of the US National Institutes of Health)

“That would be like a hundred people simultaneously touching an Ebola-infected person,” says Fauci. Ebola would not need to be altered in any way to make such a plot work. The virus is already so capable of spreading from person to person via contact with bodily fluids that in its natural state it could do some serious damage.

“Ebola is a very lethal pathogenic virus,” says virologist Robert Garry of Tulane University. “It’s basically weaponizing itself.”

The second, and perhaps easiest, small-scale bioterrorism option would be to recruit individuals for Ebola suicide missions. Such a plan would hinge on injecting Ebola virus into a limited number of people, who would then need to leave west Africa (or wherever the outbreak may be) before becoming symptomatic. Then those individuals would have to get into a public space and projectile vomit or bleed onto others to infect them. Obviously, the plot would need to overcome substantial technical challenges including the extreme weakness that arises from Ebola. If it did succeed, this mode of transmission would not kill thousands of people, but it would set off significant fears.

The third bio-terrorism method appears to be the most unlikely: genetically modifying the virus to enable it to spread more readily, perhaps through the air. As Scientific American reported on September 16, transforming the Ebola virus from a pathogen that primarily affects the circulatory system to one well suited for the respiratory system, would be a major research undertaking. While theoretically the microbe could be manipulated to act in that way, it would be a demanding choice for nefarious actors looking to stockpile harmful materials.

Johan van Dongen

But there’s another delivery mechanism that’s more up a suicide bomber’s alley. They get infected and carry the disease incubating in them but still asymptomatic to their target country. As soon as the symptoms just begin manifesting, the person goes to a highly public area and blows themselves up, spraying contaminated and aerosolized body components all over the surrounding populace, as well as killing or injuring others just from the blast.

That can be done during the cold and flu season when everyone is coughing and sneezing already and you have a prime secondary and tertiary infection path already going in your favor, as well as masking the early Ebola symptoms.

Glenn Ogoro

If we consider Ebola as a weapon of terror, then yes; it’s not likely. How about considering Ebola as a means to combat terrorism? After all, Ebola has all the spread characteristics which can be used to eliminate or weaken hostile or terrorist cells.

First, most terrorist cells now are of Muslim origin and maintain religious and cultural practices which include touching, kissing and washing of their dead. Since these cells by their nature are communal, there is a lot of targeted interaction between members of a cell, even when they are sick.

A simple prisoner exchange could be the link to introducing the virus into these extremist groups/cells. A few infected prisoners injected and left to harbor the virus for a few days right before release is an easy way to get the virus in these cells. New prisoners are usually the center of attention for a few days and constantly greeted with hugs, kisses, and other affectionate contact gestures. Spread.

When said prisoner gets ill; until there are the later signs of hemorrhaging, the virus can easily spread to internal and general caretakers, which I can assume will be a few, and from them to others. Multiplied spread.

Further spread will increase when the body is being prepared for burial (washing, kissing). Spread cycle.

Until the signs are noted by members of terrorist groups, the virus can easily spread rapidly and fast; engulfing a network in a matter of weeks. Even though the spread from one prisoner might not be that much, the impact will be major if considered through a group of released prisoners (as usual).

Early containment could be unlikely, due to the general opposition of western doctrines in these cycles. The forcing of extremist groups to change their practices could mean undermining their religious beliefs and accepting a “western” way, which may not be easily accepted.

In the event where the virus is detected early among members, the effects of panic and fear among a typically close-knit operation can still be deleterious, to the point of slowing or shutting down operations due to reduced interaction, and uncertainty among members.

Biowarfare has been going on for a very long time. In the dark ages, plague victims would be thrown into cities by catapult to break sieges. Smallpox infected blankets were given to Indians by British soldiers in the French and Indian Wars. China still has outbreaks from bio-weapons the Japanese used against them in WWII.

It wouldn’t take a Manhattan Project type effort to develop a bio-weapon and Ebola is so nasty to start with, it doesn’t need much in the way of weaponization. If someone is playing games, field testing this bug and getting their act together for a major attack somewhere in the world, it’s time to build a bunker.

Multiple viral agents have been classified by the CDC as potential weapons of mass destruction or agents for biologic terrorism. Agents such as smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fever viruses, agents of viral encephalitis, and others are of concern because they are highly infectious and relatively easy to produce. Although dispersion might be difficult, the risk is magnified by the fact that large populations are susceptible to these agents and only limited treatment and vaccination strategies exist. Although the risk of large-scale bioterrorism using viral agents is small, public health programs and health care providers must be prepared for this potentially devastating impact on public health.

The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are classified as Category A bio-warfare agents by the Centers for Disease Control. Most known human infections with these viruses have been fatal, and no vaccines or effective therapies are currently available. Filoviruses are highly infectious by the airborne route in the laboratory, but investigations of African outbreaks have shown that person-to-person spread requires direct contact with the virus-containing material. To show you that Ebola can be spread by air and other directions we will publish three scientific Abstracts published in well known scientific institutions.

Lethal experimental infections of rhesus monkeys by aerosolized Ebola virus

Johnson E1, Jaax N, White J, Jahrling P, Int J Exp Pathol. 1995 Aug;76(4):227-36.

Abstract

The potential of atherogenic infection by Ebola virus was established by using a head-only exposure aerosol system. Virus-containing droplets of 0.8-1.2 microns were generated and administered into the respiratory tract of rhesus monkeys via inhalation. Inhalation of viral doses as low as 400 plaque-forming units of virus caused a rapidly fatal disease in 4-5 days.

The illness was clinically identical to that reported for parenteral virus inoculation, except for the occurrence of subcutaneous and venipuncture site bleeding and serosanguineous nasal discharge. Immunocytochemistry revealed cell-associated Ebola virus antigens present in airway epithelium, alveolar pneumocytes, and macrophages in the lung and pulmonary lymph nodes; extracellular antigen was present on mucosal surfaces of the nose, oropharynx, and airways.

Aggregates of the characteristic filamentous virus were present of type I pneumocytes, macrophages, and air spaces of the lung by electron microscopy. Demonstration of fatal aerosol transmission of this virus in monkeys reinforces the importance of taking appropriate precautions to prevent its potential aerosol transmission to humans.

Transmission of Ebola virus (Zaire strain) to uninfected control monkeys in a biocontainment laboratory

Jaax N1, Jahrling P, Geisbert T, Geisbert J, Teele K, McKee K, Nagley D, Johnson E, Jaax G, Peters CLancet. 1995 Dec 23-30;346(8991-8992):1669-71.

Abstract

Secondary transmission of Ebola virus infection in humans is known to be caused by direct contact with infected patients or body fluids. We report transmission of Ebola virus (Zaire strain) to two of three control rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that did not have direct contact with experimentally inoculated monkeys held in the same room.

The two control monkeys died from Ebola virus infections at 10 and 11 days after the last experimentally inoculated monkey had died. The most likely route of infection of the control monkeys was aerosol, oral or conjunctival exposure to virus-laden droplets secreted or excreted from the experimentally inoculated monkeys. These observations suggest approaches to the study of routes of transmission to and among humans.

Lethal experimental infection of rhesus monkeys with Ebola-Zaire (Mayinga) virus by the oral and conjunctival route of exposure.

Davis K.J, Geisbert TJ, Vogel P, Jaax GP, Topper M,J ahrling PB. Lancet 1996 Feb; 120 (2): 140-55.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The source of infection or mode of transmission of Ebola virus to human index cases of Ebola fever has not been established. Field observations in outbreaks of Ebola fever indicate that secondary transmission of Ebola virus is linked to improper needle hygiene, direct contact with infected tissue or fluid samples, and close contact with infected patients.

While it is presumed that the virus infects through either break in the skin or contact with mucous membranes, the only two routes of exposure that have been experimentally validated are parental inoculation and aerosol inhalation. Epidemiologist evidence suggests that aerosol exposure is not an important means of virus transmission in natural outbreaks of human Ebola fever; this study was designed to verify that Ebola virus could be effectively transmitted by oral or conjunctival exposure in nonhuman primates.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were exposed to Ebola-Zaire (Mayinga) virus orally (N=4), conjunctival (N=4), or by intramuscular inoculation (N=1, virus-positive control).

RESULTS

Four of seven monkeys exposed by the conjunctival route, three of four monkeys exposed by the oral route, and the intramuscularly inoculated positive control monkey were successfully infected with Ebola-Zaire (Mayinga). Seven monkeys died of Ebola fever between days 7 and 8 post-exposure, but one of the monkeys given aggressive supportive therapy and a platelet transfusion; lived until day 12 post-exposure.

Belgian scientist and discoverer of Ebola, Peter Piot, knew everything about the virus but wouldn’t say publicly was a medical crime against Africa, because his country was involved.

CONCLUSIONS

Findings from the experimental study confirm that Ebola virus can be effectively transmitted via the oral or conjunctival route of exposure in nonhuman primates and absolutely can be used as a bio-warfare weapon.

US Exposed: Sierra Leone closes US Bio-weapons lab at center of Ebola outbreak, stops Tulane university from Ebola testing

NEW EBOLA 5

In a sign that the Sierra Leone goverment has begun to fight back against the orchestrated Ebola outbreak, The Ministry of Health and Sanitation announced yesterday it had ordered Tulane University to stop Ebola testing and the US bioweapons laboratory at Kenema to be relocated in response to growing anger from locals.

The sensational announcement — posted on the health ministry’s facebook page — strongly suggests the notion that the diagnosis of Ebola using Tulane University kits at Kenema have been found to be  false or faked.

The Kenema bio-weapons lab is the only testing centre for ebola in Sierra Leona and holds the highest number of victims. Tulane University conducts bioweapons research on behalf of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID).

http://www.amazon.com/AIDS-AND-EBOLA-Greatest-Medical-ebook/dp/B00QZCYMSS

How Bill Gates’ Statement Exposes Ebola As A Created Disease

Bill Gates

“We’ve created, in terms of spread, the most dangerous environment that we’ve ever had in the history of mankind,”-  Gates tells Vox.  Can any intelligent person or the media gather evidence from this statement made by the 59 years old successful businessman? Like always, the aim of the media today is to misinform, to manipulate, twist and hide facts from the public over diseases just to keep their jobs to feed their families.

Showing concern over a possible outbreak of a disease in the next few decades, Bill Gates said “I rate the chance of a nuclear war within my lifetime as being fairly low. I rate the chance of a widespread epidemic, far worse than Ebola, in my lifetime, as well over 50%.” “It’s especially terrifying, given the way we reacted to the last epidemic: The Ebola outbreak of last year showed how unready the world is for dealing with infectious disease.”

“The last widespread killer epidemic was the Spanish Flu. Between 1918 and 1919, it killed between 20 million and 40 million people worldwide — more than World War I. What’s even more frightening, Gates says, is that we don’t even know where the Spanish Flu came from, it was just called the “Spanish Flu” because the press in Spain were the first to report on it.”

The need for Bill Gates to be worried is necessary. I quote: We don’t know where the Spanish Flu came from, it was just called “The Spanish Flu” because the press in Spain were the first to report on it. But certainly Bill Gates knew where Ebola came from, because the virus was created by America, Russia and Germany for biological warfare purpose, long before it exploded in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Congo and Guinea.

I wasn’t surprised at all when the business tycoon ended his talks with Vox, saying  “We’ve created, in terms of spread, the most dangerous environment that we’ve ever had in the history of mankind.” Let World Leaders and America continue to fool the people, but they can’t continue fooling the people all the time. Over the truth of Aids and Ebola, time will tell.

 

Lassa Fever: “The Virus Exists In Laboratory Since 1930’S, Before Discovery In Nigeria 1969”- Says Prof. Johan Van Dongen

By Johan Van Dongen and Joel Savage

Lassa fever medical crime

Lassa Fever is another medical bioweapon against Africa

 

Lassa fever, an arenavirus is an acute viral illness that typically occurs in blacks in West Africa. The illness was discovered in 1969, when two missionary nurses died in Nigeria, according to the CDC, but how can Africa trust the Center for Diseases Control, when in collaboration with America, World Health Organization and Europe, responsible for the Aids and Ebola crimes?

“Because the clinical course of the disease is so variable, detection of the disease in affected patient is very difficult, that’s why it can be used as a biological warfare agent.”- Prof. Johan Van Dongen

History of Lassa Fever

There are seven deadly diseases of concern; the three most unpredictable are Lassa fever, Marburg virus disease and Ebola virus disease. In this article the epidemiological and bio-warfare aspects of these diseases are discussed, with particular emphasis on exportation from their indigenous areas in Africa and on the occurrence of secondary cases.

Any of these diseases for instance could be brought into Canada or the United States of America, inadvertently or by aeromedical evacuation.Between 1972 and 1978, there were seven occasions when Canada could have been involved with handling cases of Lassa fever.

The Government of Canada purchased several bed and transit isolators. The units with filtered air under negative pressure, accommodated the infectious and patients were transported and cared for without any health hazard to the attendants or the environment.

The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) has been used routinely in serological studies with such arena viruses

These plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) were used in the forties of the last century, long time before the first outbreak in 1969, in Lassa, Nigeria, in order to look for a biological warfare product.

The first scientific publication about the Lassa virus was written by C. Armstrong in 1934, as “Experimental lymphotropicchorio meningitis of monkeys and mice produced by a Lassa virus encountered in studies of the 1933 St. Louis Encephalitis Epidemic, Public Health Rep. 49: 1019 -1027 (1934).”

Nowadays Lassa fever is an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. One important question regarding Lassa fever is the duration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody after infection. We were able to locate three people who worked in Nigeria dating back to the 1940s, two of whom were integrally involved in the early outbreaks and investigations of Lassa fever in the late 1960s, including the person who was isolated from Lassa virus. Two people had high titers of Lassa virus-specific IgG antibody over 40 years after infection, indicating the potential long-term duration of these antibodies. One person was likely infected in 1952, 17 years before the first recognized outbreak.

Background of Lassa virus

Though first described in 1934 and later in the 1940s and 1950s, the virus causing Lassa disease was not publicly identified until 1969. The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the virus family Arenaviridae. About 80% of people who became infected with Lassa virus have no symptoms. One in five infected of the disease is very severe, where the virus affects several organs such as the liver, spleen and kidneys.

It is said that normally Lassa fever is a zoonotic disease, meaning humans can become infected when in contact with infected animals. The animal reservoir, or host, of Lassa virus is a rodent of the genus Mastomys, commonly known as the “immaculate rat.” Mastomys rats infected with Lassa virus do not become ill, but they can shed the virus in their urine and faeces. But the rats were infected by scientists, such as Cooper in 1961, and many others in laboratory and later set free in the the environment, for example in Lassa, Nigeria, to prey on humans, in order to see the effects or find the result.

Because the clinical course of the disease is so variable, detection of the disease in affected patients is very difficult, that’s why it can be used as a biological warfare agent. However, when presence of the disease is confirmed in a community, prompt isolation of affected patients, good infection protection and control practices and rigorous contact tracing can stop outbreaks.

Lassa fever or Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF) is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus and first described in 1969 in the town of Lassa, in Borno State, Nigeria. Lassa fever is a member of the Arena viridae virus family, similar to Ebola clinical cases. The disease had been known for over a decade but had not been connected with a viral pathogen. The infection is endemic in West African countries, resulting in 300,000 -500,000 cases annually, causing approximately 5,000 deaths each year. Outbreaks of the disease have been observed in Nigeria, Liberia, Sierra leone, Guinea and the Central African Republic.

The Lassa virus plaque assay satisfied the criteria proposed by Cooper in 1961 for determining satisfactory plaque technique

The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) has been used routinely in serological studies with such arena viruses as Junin, Machupo, and Parana. However, difficulties have been encountered in using the PRNT for LCM virus, while conflicting views have been expressed about the reliability and efficacy of the test with Lassa virus.

 

Lassa fever medical crime

Johan Van Dongen is a Dutch scientist who revealed that Aids and Ebola were bio-weapons against Africa by America

“I don’t want a name for myself, but I will not allow CDC to continue fooling the world”- Prof J. van Dongen.

They therefore investigated and evaluated the plaque assay for Lassa virus. In addition, the suitability of the PRNT for determining the potency of a serum and its efficacy in passive immunization for the treatment of Lassa fever was also investigated. The Lassa virus plaque assay satisfied the criteria proposed by Cooper in 1961, for determining satisfactory plaque technique. Lassa virus plaques appear within 3 days of inoculating Vero cell cultures.

By day 5, the plaques are clearly defined, discrete, and measure 1.5 to 2.0 mm. In the plaque reduction neutralization test, the use of native non-inactivated serum was required for a reliable and reproducible determination of serum antibody titer. The potency and suitability of a serum for Lassa fever serotherapy was determined by the use of a constant serum-varying virus (CS-VV) and/or a constant virus-varying serum (CV-VS) PRN technique.

Questions for readers to ask Center for Diseases Control

How is it possible that the Lassa virus which is known in the thirties, forties and fifties in laboratory circumstances, the first official outbreak occurred in 1969, in Lassa Nigeria? CDC can fool the public or the world that the disease was first discovered in Nigeria, 1969, but they can’t fool Johan Van Dongen.

This finding is similar to the first outbreaks of the Marburg virus in 1967, in Germany and the Ebola virus in 1976, in Africa as described in: “Aids and Ebola the greatest crime in medical history against mankind” amazon.com.