Aids And Ebola Medical Crimes: Africa Wants Justice

African children are example to follow

In the midst of Aids, Ebola and Lassa fever, African children are always happy

By Joel Savage and Johan Van Dongen

Illiteracy is not having the ability to read and write.  According to UNESCO, 774 million people aged 15 and older are illiterate. 52 percent live in South and West of Asia and 22 percent in sub-Saharan Africa. Even though literacy is very important and is a human right, illiteracy is one of the biggest problems in Africa today.

The impact of illiteracy in Africa is very heavy to the extent that Burkina Faso, South Sudan, Niger, Mali, Chad, Somalia, Ethiopia, Guinea, Nigeria and the Republic of Benin, are seriously affected. It is not surprised that some pastors are now claiming that Aids and Ebola are God’s curses, because of lack of reading. Some clans and tribes believe they have offended God, thus; deserve such punishment. Can you imagine how the impact of illiteracy can affect the way people think?

With such kind of thinking among the literacy and the continued dependence of African leaders on Europe and America, bringing those responsible of the medical crimes in Africa, (Belgium, Holland, Germany, France, America etc) to face justice, has been a dream of illusion to pursued. It is heart-wrenching that many years after independence swept through Africa, African leaders continue to bring their bowls on shores of Europe and America, begging for food and finance, while the continent has everything available to be used towards its development and creating jobs for the common people.

The inability to solve internal problems and financing of projects, have made African leaders a sort of puppets on strings, being pulled by Europe and America. As the proverb goes in Ghana, “If your hand is in someone’s mouth, don’t knock his head,’ African leaders can’t confront Europe and America over the crimes they have committed against the continent, because they still depend on them. That actually doesn’t make African leaders smart at all.

If Africans love to read, they will not continue to say that Aids and Ebola are curses from God, after many scientists , including Dutch Professor Johan Van Dongen have challenged Europe and America that Aids and Ebola were  engineered as bio-weapons as a means to depopulate Africa.

If African leaders have totally disappointed Africans and continued to show their incompetence, the African population, including everyone who has lost his or her loved one to Aids and Ebola,  must let Europe and America pay for their crimes. They should demand the justice they need. Yesterday were Aids and Lassa fever, today is Ebola, who knows what comes next?

Fresh Outbreak Of Ebola In Guinea

NEW EBOLA

Health workers are rushing to the site of a fresh Ebola outbreak in Guinea to bolster efforts to contain the virus and prepare for the likelihood of more cases, aid agencies said on Friday.

Four people in the southern region of Nzerekore were tested on Thursday and two of them were found to have Ebola. They were all from Korokpara, a village where three people from the same family have died in recent weeks from diarrhea and vomiting.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) and aid agencies have sent experts to investigate the origin of the new cases and to identify, isolate, vaccinate and monitor all of their contacts.

The Alliance for International Medical Action (ALIMA) has reopened its Ebola treatment unit in Nzerekore, while the United Nations children’s agency (UNICEF) is reinforcing its team in the region and providing protective equipment and medicine.

“There has been a very professional and experienced response across the board,” said Augustin Augier of ALIMA, which admitted the two patients, a child and his mother, to its treatment unit.

“We are doing all we can to be ready to receive more cases,” he said, adding that ALIMA were flying in more staff from Paris.

More than 28,500 people have been infected and 11,300 have died since the world’s worst recorded Ebola epidemic began in December 2013 – mostly in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.

While the epidemic has come under control, experts have warned of the risk of new flare-ups, as Ebola can linger in the eyes, central nervous system and bodily fluids of survivors.

The two fresh cases in Nzerekore, where the Ebola outbreak began in 2013, were reported just hours after the WHO declared neighboring Sierra Leone’s latest flare-up over.

Guinea had been nearing the end of a 90-day period of heightened surveillance when the fresh cases were reported – the country’s first known re-emergence of Ebola after the outbreak was officially declared over there at the end of December 2015.

“The heightened surveillance means mechanisms were in place and that we were vigilant and prepared to deal with the flare-up,” said Guy Yogo, UNICEF’s deputy representative in Guinea.

“The population is now aware of the disease and listening to the guidance it receives from the authorities,” Yogo added.

It was not immediately clear how the villagers from Korokpara had contracted Ebola but the area had resisted efforts to fight the disease in the initial epidemic.

(Reporting By Kieran Guilbert, Editing by Ros Russell; Please credit the Thomson Reuters Foundation, the charitable arm of Thomson Reuters, that covers humanitarian news, women’s rights, trafficking, corruption and climate change. Visit news.trust.org)

HOW EBOLA KILLS 

The question the world needs an answer: If Aids and Ebola are not bio-weapons against Africa, why the disease keeps emerging after the World Health Organization and Center for Diseases Control declared Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone Ebola free countries?

“You can fool all the people some of the time, and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time.” – Abraham Lincoln.

AMERICA’S WEAPONIZATION OF EBOLA

ebola 5

Article published by Strategic Culture Foundation by Wayne MADSEN

President Barack Obama has received a torrent of criticism for dispatching U.S. troops and National Guardsmen to the Ebola-ravaged West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea to help control the spread of the highly-lethal Ebola-Zaire hemorrhagic virus. While Cuba has sent qualified doctors to the stricken region, Obama has responded with troops answering to the U.S. Africa Command in Stuttgart, Germany. 

Evidence has recently surfaced in a 2009 U.S. embassy Berlin cable to the U.S. State and Defense Departments that German authorities hesitated to send hemorrhagic fever cultures to the suspected biological warfare laboratory at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) at Fort Detrick, Maryland because the Germans feared the Army might «weaponize» the cultures.

The cable, classified as «Sensitive», is dated December 15, 2009, and states:

«German MFA [Ministry of Foreign Affairs] Deputy Head of Division for Export Control Markus Klinger provided the following non-paper to Econoff [Embassy Economics Officer], seeking additional assurances related to a proposed export of extremely dangerous pathogens to the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases.

The Army’s end use certificate provided to Germany is lacking an official seal. Klinger’s deputy, Nancy Reck, noted that Germany had made two follow-up requests to the Army seeking assurances and clarifications related to this proposed export. The GOG [Government of Germany] seeks assurances from the USG [US Government] or US Army that the end use certificate and the information contained therein are legitimate and accurate».

The «non-paper» reference is to an «aide-memoire», what is known in the diplomatic world as a note without an author, source, or title that is used to prepare for negotiations. The following «non-paper», which was originally written in German, was translated by the embassy and sent to Washington:

«For Official Use Only 

Against the background of our partnership in the area of non-proliferation and our excellent cooperation in the matters of export controls, we would like to bring the following issue to the attention of your government.

A German firm has applied for the approval of the export of 184 genetic elements with nucleic acid sequences of viruses for the production of recombinant viruses. The viruses will be used in optical imaging to identify host factors required for viral replication. The recipient in the USA is, according to the enclosed end use certificate, the Department of the Army ‘US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)’ Fort Detrick, Maryland.

Specifications in English about the goods, the recipient, and end use can be seen from the end use certificate. The goods are controlled by the Australia Group and are subject to compulsory export approval (List position C1C353A). This matter concerns the complete genome of viruses such as the Zaire Ebola virus, the Lake Victoria Marburg virus, the Machupo virus and the Lassa virus, which are absolutely among the most dangerous pathogens in the world. The delivery would place the recipient in the position of being able to create replicating recombinant infectious species of these viruses.

Learn more: http://m.strategic-culture.org/news/2014/10/24/america-weaponization-of-ebola.html

“You Will Kill Our Medical Team In Your Country, So We Chose Genetically Modified Mosquitoes To Spread The Disease”- America

Zika

BY JOEL SAVAGE AND JOHAN VAN DONGEN

EUROPE AND AMERICA ARE NOW FULLY AWARE THE WHOLE WORLD /AFRICANS KNOW THAT AIDS, EBOLA AND LASSA FEVER, ETC; WERE MEDICAL CRIMES AGAINST THE AFRICAN CONTINENT.

It will be recalled that on September 18, 2014, Guinean government officials visited the village of Womme in the country’s southeast, they planned to educate people about Ebola and show them how to avoid it — in a region where many still believe the virus doesn’t exist. But it all went disastrously wrong. Villagers responded furiously, pelting the delegation with stones and beating the visitors with clubs, according to Guinean radio.

The delegation, which included doctors and journalists, fled into the bush after the attack Tuesday. The Guinean government said Thursday that eight delegation members had been killed, including several journalists, news agencies reported. There also were reports that 21 people had been injured.

“It’s very sad and hard to believe, but they were killed in cold blood by the villagers,” government spokesman Albert Damantang Camara said, according to Agence France-Presse. A local police officer, Richard Haba, said the villagers believed that Ebola “is nothing more than an invention of white people to kill black people.”

Why is America now using Genetically Modified Mosquitoes to spread Zika Virus as Bio-warfare?

Since after this deadly incidence in Guinea, Europe and America are very cautious and aren’t prepared to lose any of their nationals from the health sector on African soil, so they planned a new strategy to inflict pain and destruction by testing the created bio-weapons on poor people, hence the genetically modified mosquitoes now spreading Zika virus throughout Latin-America.

Yes! America wants to prove that if the medical crime can’t be done by touching down in countries or where ever they wanted, it can be done as bio-weapon through the air, but let us just wait and see, because what’s coming tomorrow is hidden from the wise and the prudent.

Read: How Libyan children were deliberately infected with HIV virus.

https://joelsavage1.wordpress.com/2014/12/19/316/

Why America Killed Ghaddafi And Saddam Hussein?

SaddamFormer Iraqi and Libyan leaders: Saddam Hussein and Muammar Ghaddafi

By Joel Savage and Johan Van Dongen

Everyone fears something in this world. Many white people claim blacks are criminals, the reason they fear them. That’s not true, after all there are also White criminals. In Belgium for the past fifteen years, I quickly realized Belgians try to keep away from Black people, not because they are criminals, but scared that the Black man will let them pay for the horrible crimes they committed against them in Africa.

Africa is a big continent with diverse people and languages. Even though they lack powerful and sophisticated weapons to defend themselves in time of war, in terms of its size, Europe and America fear the African continent more than anything on earth. Even in Europe, many Europeans fear the presence of black people, especially when speaking a language they don’t understand.

Africans were living in that remote deadly continent for ages, before the first White missionaries ever set their feet and the vaccine for malaria was found. After many Europeans died of malaria, hence the ‘The White Man’s Grave’ was given as Africa’s second name. Their next goal was to find out how Africans were able to survive on that harsh tough continent.

Europeans were not happy over the way Africans were stronger than them. Instead of learning how they survive on that harsh continent, they decided to invade it, loot the continent, capture the people into slavery and depopulate it with deadly diseases including Aids, Ebola, Lassa fever, Ziga virus and other deadly diseases.

That wasn’t enough for Europe and America. They made sure to kill every powerful African leader that poses a threat to them. In South Africa Steve Biko was brutally murdered. After Kwame Nkrumah survived coup attempts, including the Kulungugu bomb in the Northern region of Ghana, in another coup orchestrated by the CIA, Nkrumah was overthrown-ed and died in exile. Another powerful African leader is off the list of America.

Libyan leader Muammar Ghaddafi

The next powerful African head of state Europe and America targeted was Patrice Lumumba of Congo. Belgium couldn’t stand the pain, when the country attained its independence, despite all the riches stolen from the country. In a coup master-minded by Europe and America, Lumumba was brutally murdered by Belgium. Belgium has since apologized for this horrible crime they committed, but Africans can forgive but they can’t forget.

After those two powerful great African leaders, no African head of state posed a threat to Europe and America, more than Libyan leader Muammar Ghaddafi. The oil rich country leader was strong, stubborn and had no respect for America and Europe. He usually called them ‘Dogs, uncircumcised or infidels.’

The hatred of Ghaddafi towards Europe and America was so intense that he started to wage war of terror and sponsoring terrorism against them. Ronald Reagan knew the only way calm down Ghaddafi was to be assassinated. Under operation code-named ‘Operation El Dorado Canyon, United States attacked Libya on Tuesday, 15 April 1986. The attack was carried out by the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps via air strikes, in response to the 1986 in Berlin discotheque bombing.

There were 40 reported Libyan casualties, and one US plane was shot down, resulting in the death of two airmen, but Ghaddafi survived the attack. Ghaddafi denied terrorism actions against Europe and America, but he couldn’t continue denying over his involvement in the bombing of flight Pan Am 103 which killed 270 passengers, crew and townspeople over and in the Scottish town of Lockerbie in December 1988, because two Libyans were identified as official suspects.

Even though Libya compensated the victims of the Lockerbie bombing by handing $1.5bn to the families of those killed on the Pan Am flight, his presence as a powerful leader in Africa , gave Europe and America sleepless nights. Whatever events which led to the capture and assassination of the leader on October 20, 2011, leading to his death, were plans orchestrated by Europe and America. Now that Libya is in ruins and powerless, Europe and America can now sleep very well. Why should the mouse get worried when the cat is trapped high on the tree?
                   Saddam Hussein: The Iraqi leader with iron fist
Saddam Hussein believed to be a successful leader, the needs to be ruthless, merciless, wicked and unfriendly with Europe and America are necessary. In fact, he was one of the evil men in political history followed by Idi Amin of Uganda. Holding on to power for 30 years, Saddam launched two attacks on the neighboring states of Iran and Kuwait.
                   Was Saddam once America’s best friend? The United States once supported Saddam, in curbing the export of a radical theocratic revolution, cooperated with the Iraqi government by supplying Saddam with economic assistance, weapon sales, the assistance of the US naval battle group, and satellite and other intelligence information in regard to the placement of Iranian troops.

This favour came back haunting America. It was no surprise that President Bush used the excuse that Saddam was habouring weapons of mass destruction to invade the country. “The dictator who is assembling the world’s most dangerous weapons has already used them on whole villages, leaving thousands of his own citizens dead, blind or disfigured,” said George Bush.

The accusation that Iraq has used chemical weapons against its citizens is a familiar part of the debate. The piece of hard evidence most frequently brought up concerns the gassing of Iraqi Kurds at the town of Halabja in March 1988, near the end of the eight-year Iran-Iraq war. President Bush himself has cited Iraq’s “gassing its own people,” specifically at Halabja, as a reason to topple Saddam Hussein.

But the truth is, all we know for certain is that Kurds were bombarded with poison gas that day at Halabja. We cannot say with any certainty that Iraqi chemical weapons killed the Kurds. This is not the only distortion in the Halabja story.

Saddam Hussein was eventually toppled and executed, but no weapons of mass destruction were found in Iraq, making George Bush one of the greatest liars in America’s political history. Everything is completely wrong in America yesterday and today, as they keep on showing their prowess through the destruction of other people.

Why America is now using Genetically Modified Mosquitoes Spreading Zika Virus As Bio-warfare?

It will be recalled that on September 18, 2014, Guinean government officials visited the village of Womme in the country’s southeast, they planned to educate people about Ebola and show them how to avoid it — in a region where many still believe the virus doesn’t exist. But it all went disastrously wrong. Villagers responded furiously, pelting the delegation with stones and beating the visitors with clubs, according to Guinean radio.

The delegation, which included doctors and journalists, fled into the bush after the attack Tuesday. The Guinean government said Thursday that eight delegation members had been killed, including several journalists, news agencies reported. There also were reports that 21 people had been injured.

“It’s very sad and hard to believe, but they were killed in cold blood by the villagers,” government spokesman Albert Damantang Camara said, according to Agence France-Presse. A local police officer, Richard Haba, said the villagers believed that Ebola “is nothing more than an invention of white people to kill black people.”

EUROPE AND AMERICA ARE NOW AWARE THAT AFRICANS KNOW AIDS, EBOLA AND LASSA FEVER ETC; WERE MEDICAL CRIMES AGAINST THE CONTINENT

Since after this deadly incidence in Guinea, Europe and America are very cautious and aren’t prepared to lose any of their nationals from the health sector on African soil, so they planned a new strategy to inflict pain and destruction by testing the created bio-weapons on poor people, hence the genetically modified mosquitoes now spreading Zika virus through out Latin-America.

Yes! America want to prove that if the medical crime can’t be done by touching down in countries or where ever they wanted, it can be done as bio-weapon through the air, but let us just wait and see, because what’s coming tomorrow is hidden from the wise and the prudent.

Read: How Libyan Children Were Deliberately Infected With HIV Virus

https://joelsavage1.wordpress.com/2014/12/19/316/

Top 20 African Countries Stink Of Corruption

Women sell food from their canoe at Makoko fishing community in LagosLagos: The Makoko slum in oil rich Nigeria crippled by corruption

In the abundance of water, is the fool thirsty? Africa is blessed with natural resources such as gold, oil, diamonds, cobalt, iron, copper, uranium, silver, bauxite, cocoa beans and petroleum etc. Unfortunately the standard of living of many people in the continent is deplorable. This is largely due to corrupt governments ruling many countries in the African continent.

Transparency International has been publishing the corruption perceptions index (CPI) since the turn of the new millennium. If a country has a CPI of 100 it is very clean. If the score is 0, then the country is highly corrupt.

Here is a brief overview of the top 20 most corrupt nations in Africa as of 2014, according to Transparency International.

=24. Mozambique (CPI score: 31)
Although the government of Mozambique has taken steps to fight corruption, its still a big problem. Corruption remains in both the public and donors, who support almost half of the nation’s budget.

=24. Sierra Leone (CPI score: 31)
Systematic corruption has caused weak governance and widespread poverty in Sierra Leone. The anti-corruption institutions still lack resources, staff and expertise.

=24. Tanzania (CPI score: 31)
Although there are comprehensive laws to fight corruption, its still a serious problems in Tanzania with bribery is often demanded in the business sector.

23. Mauritania (CPI score: 30)
Corruption has become deeply entrenched in Mauritania. Part of what fuels corruption in this nation is the insufficient information or absence of transparency about local companies, the identities of their owners, and financial report.

=21. Gambia (CPI score: 29)
Gambia’s judiciary is subject to pervasive political interference, and there is corruption in many parts of the government.

=21. Togo (CPI score: 29)
Corruption in Togo is common and those involved rarely punish. Corruption more among prison and police officers, and members of the judiciary.

20. Madagascar (CPI score: 28)
Madagascar is one of the world’s poorest countries and has had a negative growth due to corruption.

=18. Cameroon (CPI score: 27)
In Cameroon, many corrupt civil servants drive around in their expensive luxury cars. People who try to bring these corrupt officers to justice pay a high price.

=18. Nigeria (CPI score: 27)
Political corruption pervades Nigeria. The rise of public administration and discovery of petroleum and natural gas have led to corrupt practices.

=16. Comoros (CPI score: 26)
Corruption remained a serious problem in Comoros, it lacks rule of law. The nation gained independence from France in 1975. Since then it has witnessed around 20 coups or coup attempts.

=16. Uganda (CPI score: 26)
Even though the country has experienced high growth rates in recent years, corruption remains widespread at all levels.

=14. Guinea (CPI score: 25)
Rampant corruption in Guinea is hindering economic growth and increasing drug trafficking.

=14. Kenya (CPI score: 25)
Political corruption in the post-colonial government of Kenya has had a history which spans the era of the Jomo Kenyatta and Daniel arap Moi’s KANU governments to Mwai Kibaki’s PNU government. Experts estimate that an average urban Kenyan pays 16 bribes in a month.

13. Central African Republic (CPI score: 24)
Growth of Central African Republic is significantly hindered by wide spread corruption. Corruption is rife and undermines timber and diamond industries.

12. Republic of Congo (CPI score: 23)
In spite of its oil wealth, Republic of Congo is one of the most indebted nations in the world. This is largely due to rampant corruption.

=10. Chad (CPI score: 22)
Feud and corruption are blocking Chad’s economic growth. Revenue from oil is not spent responsibly. Corruption rules this nation.

=10. Democratic Republic of Congo (CPI score: 22)
As the nation emerges from a long period of violence and instability, it struggles with a legacy of entrenched corruption at all levels.

=9. Zimbabwe (CPI score: 21)
Corruption in Zimbabwe has become endemic within its political, private and civil sectors. In 2011, finance minister Tendai Biti claimed that at least $1 billion in diamond related revenue owed to the national treasury remains unaccounted for.

8. Burundi (CPI score: 20)
Despite the establishment of anti-corruption agencies, Burundi is remains a corrupt country in sub-Saharan Africa.

=6. Angola (CPI score: 19)
Corruption is a pervasive phenomenon in Angola. The current government is working on containing corruption by enacting laws and enforcing integrity systems.

=6. Guinea Bissau (CPI score: 19)
Guinea Bissau was once hailed as a potential model for African development. Today it is one of the poorest nations in the world. This is largely due to corruption among high-ranking officials.

=4. Eritrea (CPI score: 18)
People in Eritrea are living in a fear-ridden environment. Corruption and greed are rampant among the members of the ruling party.

=4. Libya (CPI score: 18)
Before the downfall of the Qadhafi regime in 2011, weak rule of law and systematic corruption had largely marginalized private sector activity in the nation. Corruption is the biggest problem facing Libya today.

Abacha 2

Former Nigeria’s head of state, late Sani Abacha stole $458 million and hid in bank accounts around the world, while thousands of Nigerians live in poverty.

3. South Sudan (CPI score: 15)

Since independence, South Sudan has taken steps to promote transparency and accountability in an endeavor to eliminate corruption. Unfortunately political will is lacking in effective implementation of anti-corruption policies.

2. Sudan (CPI score: 11)
Top ranking government officials are frequently involved in corrupt practices in Sudan. This has impacted the economic growth negatively. It is a huge challenge to do business in Sudan. Sectors like construction and transportation are prone to corruption.

1. Somalia (CPI score: cool
The Federal Republic of Somalia is located in the horn of Africa. Around 10 million people live in this country. It is the most corrupt nation in the world. There is lack of accountability in receipt and expenditure of public funds. Currently a parliamentary finance committee has been established to oversee all withdrawal transactions from the Central Bank, which is Somalia’s official monetary authority.

If the above-mentioned nations tackle corruption effectively, they will be able to enhance the standard of living of their people significantly.

Source: http://www.richestlifestyle.com/most-corrupt-countries-in-africa/

Tourism: Step Into The Paradise Taste Of Tropical Fruits In Ghana

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Home sweet home: Joel Savage enjoys the sweet juicy water of fresh coconut.

The axiom, “All work and no play, makes Jack a dull boy” might have originally been conceived by a domestic idealist, who knows the truth. Working hard without a break can affect your health. The impact can take its toll on you.

This is the reason I decided to visit my mother at the age of 80, in Ghana, after five years. Seeing her grey hair, but strong and healthy, boosted my happiness. In my daily prayers I always ask God to give her long life, to enjoy her fruits of labour, and it seems He has answered my prayers.

My mother after losing her husband at the age of 44, in 1976, (The Writer Died) https://goo.gl/hLBqj4, left with eight children, without any support, took the responsibility alone to make sure that we were fed, clothed, accommodated and educated.

In Ghana, I visited many places including the Cape Coast castle, in the central region of Ghana and some villages, such as ‘Akatechiwa’ which has intriguing story leading to the village’s name. I will be sharing all the interesting articles pertaining my visit with you very soon on social media.

Apart from my adventure and exploration, I enjoyed the fresh tropical fruits, such as coconut, mango, sweet apple etc. Many in foreign countries, such as Europeans and Americans may have the experience of tasting juicy canned tropical fruits, but nothing compares to the original fresh taste of tropical fruits taken moments from the trees in Ghana or Africa generally.

Many Europeans and Americans yearly make a trip to Ghana to explore its ancient castles and forts and some have settled finally in the country, saying good bye to Europe and America. Don’t let the foreign media deceive you. Be part of those visiting Ghana.

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The Coconut tree: I know that there are thousands of readers interested in non-fiction genre of books, thus; one of my goals is to share my non-fiction books through diversity of culture. My utterly and compelling collections are destined to capture the reader’s attention and interest, to learn about other people’s culture and heritage.

My books are in the categories of travel, immigration, health and entertainment. The personal account of the stories reflect on the places I visited in Africa, such as Ghana, Guinea, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, Togo, Benin and Gambia. And in Europe, it’s about life in Barcelona, Spain, Aahus, Denmark, England, Amsterdam, Holland, Rome, Italy and Antwerp, Belgium.

The African stories act like a guide to European and Americans tourists. The books will teach you how to avoid being a victim to thieves, armed robbers and immigration crooks, that prey on nationals and foreigners, while the Europeans stories teach Africans how to survive in Europe, without papers and crime.