Why Mosquitoes In Central Africa Different From Other Mosquitoes In Africa?

Mosquito 2

(Aedes aegypti Anopheles mosquito transmits deadly parasite causing malaria in Africa.

By Johan Van Dongen and Joel Savage

Malaria is one of the deadly diseases in Africa, claiming thousands of lives yearly. It is caused by the Plasmodium parasite. The parasite can be spread to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes.

Male mosquito doesn’t transmit the disease but female Anopheles mosquitoes pick up the parasite from infected people when they bite to obtain blood needed to nurture their eggs. Inside the mosquito the parasites develop and reproduce. When the mosquito bites again, the parasites mix with its saliva and pass into the blood of the person being bitten.

For a very long time eradication of malaria in Africa has been a daunting task, because of poverty and poor drainage, since the eggs of the disease carriers thrive in stagnant pools, chocked gutters and uncollected debris.

People always try to make fortune out of other people’s misery. In one of the research of Holland’s Micro-Surgeon and scientist Johan Van Dongen, he discovered that the malaria in Central Africa was entirely different from those in other African countries, due to its deadly and devastating effects.

Johan Van Dongen revealed that: Striking is that some Africans discussed the presence of mosquitoes and why white folk did not penetrate Africa until the nineteenth century? Within one of my hundreds of previous articles, I explained to Africans and the Afro-Americans that white folk has developed diseases and put them with genetic engineering techniques into African mosquitoes in order to kill black folks.

This is the reason the type of mosquitoes in Central Africa are different from normal mosquitoes in Africa. I can imagine that my research may not be satisfactory to many, but you shouldn’t doubt what I have said. I have already issued a challenge to all top scientists in Europe and America to prove me wrong, if Aids, Ebola, Lassa fever and other deadly diseases weren’t medical crimes against Africa, up till now no one has accepted the challenge.

We have pilots, scientists, engineers, teachers, journalists etc, all of them went to school. Many graduate to serve their countries in humility, humbleness and in truth, while others chose the path of destruction just to cause misery and suffering to the poor and helpless for their greed and selfish gains. I am not on the path of destruction. If you are a scientist over there and you doubt my research, come forward and challenge me.

Top 20 African Countries Stink Of Corruption

Women sell food from their canoe at Makoko fishing community in LagosLagos: The Makoko slum in oil rich Nigeria crippled by corruption

In the abundance of water, is the fool thirsty? Africa is blessed with natural resources such as gold, oil, diamonds, cobalt, iron, copper, uranium, silver, bauxite, cocoa beans and petroleum etc. Unfortunately the standard of living of many people in the continent is deplorable. This is largely due to corrupt governments ruling many countries in the African continent.

Transparency International has been publishing the corruption perceptions index (CPI) since the turn of the new millennium. If a country has a CPI of 100 it is very clean. If the score is 0, then the country is highly corrupt.

Here is a brief overview of the top 20 most corrupt nations in Africa as of 2014, according to Transparency International.

=24. Mozambique (CPI score: 31)
Although the government of Mozambique has taken steps to fight corruption, its still a big problem. Corruption remains in both the public and donors, who support almost half of the nation’s budget.

=24. Sierra Leone (CPI score: 31)
Systematic corruption has caused weak governance and widespread poverty in Sierra Leone. The anti-corruption institutions still lack resources, staff and expertise.

=24. Tanzania (CPI score: 31)
Although there are comprehensive laws to fight corruption, its still a serious problems in Tanzania with bribery is often demanded in the business sector.

23. Mauritania (CPI score: 30)
Corruption has become deeply entrenched in Mauritania. Part of what fuels corruption in this nation is the insufficient information or absence of transparency about local companies, the identities of their owners, and financial report.

=21. Gambia (CPI score: 29)
Gambia’s judiciary is subject to pervasive political interference, and there is corruption in many parts of the government.

=21. Togo (CPI score: 29)
Corruption in Togo is common and those involved rarely punish. Corruption more among prison and police officers, and members of the judiciary.

20. Madagascar (CPI score: 28)
Madagascar is one of the world’s poorest countries and has had a negative growth due to corruption.

=18. Cameroon (CPI score: 27)
In Cameroon, many corrupt civil servants drive around in their expensive luxury cars. People who try to bring these corrupt officers to justice pay a high price.

=18. Nigeria (CPI score: 27)
Political corruption pervades Nigeria. The rise of public administration and discovery of petroleum and natural gas have led to corrupt practices.

=16. Comoros (CPI score: 26)
Corruption remained a serious problem in Comoros, it lacks rule of law. The nation gained independence from France in 1975. Since then it has witnessed around 20 coups or coup attempts.

=16. Uganda (CPI score: 26)
Even though the country has experienced high growth rates in recent years, corruption remains widespread at all levels.

=14. Guinea (CPI score: 25)
Rampant corruption in Guinea is hindering economic growth and increasing drug trafficking.

=14. Kenya (CPI score: 25)
Political corruption in the post-colonial government of Kenya has had a history which spans the era of the Jomo Kenyatta and Daniel arap Moi’s KANU governments to Mwai Kibaki’s PNU government. Experts estimate that an average urban Kenyan pays 16 bribes in a month.

13. Central African Republic (CPI score: 24)
Growth of Central African Republic is significantly hindered by wide spread corruption. Corruption is rife and undermines timber and diamond industries.

12. Republic of Congo (CPI score: 23)
In spite of its oil wealth, Republic of Congo is one of the most indebted nations in the world. This is largely due to rampant corruption.

=10. Chad (CPI score: 22)
Feud and corruption are blocking Chad’s economic growth. Revenue from oil is not spent responsibly. Corruption rules this nation.

=10. Democratic Republic of Congo (CPI score: 22)
As the nation emerges from a long period of violence and instability, it struggles with a legacy of entrenched corruption at all levels.

=9. Zimbabwe (CPI score: 21)
Corruption in Zimbabwe has become endemic within its political, private and civil sectors. In 2011, finance minister Tendai Biti claimed that at least $1 billion in diamond related revenue owed to the national treasury remains unaccounted for.

8. Burundi (CPI score: 20)
Despite the establishment of anti-corruption agencies, Burundi is remains a corrupt country in sub-Saharan Africa.

=6. Angola (CPI score: 19)
Corruption is a pervasive phenomenon in Angola. The current government is working on containing corruption by enacting laws and enforcing integrity systems.

=6. Guinea Bissau (CPI score: 19)
Guinea Bissau was once hailed as a potential model for African development. Today it is one of the poorest nations in the world. This is largely due to corruption among high-ranking officials.

=4. Eritrea (CPI score: 18)
People in Eritrea are living in a fear-ridden environment. Corruption and greed are rampant among the members of the ruling party.

=4. Libya (CPI score: 18)
Before the downfall of the Qadhafi regime in 2011, weak rule of law and systematic corruption had largely marginalized private sector activity in the nation. Corruption is the biggest problem facing Libya today.

Abacha 2

Former Nigeria’s head of state, late Sani Abacha stole $458 million and hid in bank accounts around the world, while thousands of Nigerians live in poverty.

3. South Sudan (CPI score: 15)

Since independence, South Sudan has taken steps to promote transparency and accountability in an endeavor to eliminate corruption. Unfortunately political will is lacking in effective implementation of anti-corruption policies.

2. Sudan (CPI score: 11)
Top ranking government officials are frequently involved in corrupt practices in Sudan. This has impacted the economic growth negatively. It is a huge challenge to do business in Sudan. Sectors like construction and transportation are prone to corruption.

1. Somalia (CPI score: cool
The Federal Republic of Somalia is located in the horn of Africa. Around 10 million people live in this country. It is the most corrupt nation in the world. There is lack of accountability in receipt and expenditure of public funds. Currently a parliamentary finance committee has been established to oversee all withdrawal transactions from the Central Bank, which is Somalia’s official monetary authority.

If the above-mentioned nations tackle corruption effectively, they will be able to enhance the standard of living of their people significantly.

Source: http://www.richestlifestyle.com/most-corrupt-countries-in-africa/

Scientific History of Ebola And The Controversial Statue Of King Leopold II

Collins

Mr. Collins Nweke

AN OPEN LETTER TO MR. COLINS NWEKE

By Johan Van Dongen

Mr. Collins Nweke is a Belgian politician of the Green Party currently serving a second term of office as Councillor at the Ostend City Council in West Flanders province. Collins Nweke is of Nigerian origin, and settled in Belgium in 1993. He is the first and so far the only non-Belgian born person to be elected to political office in West Flanders.

He is particularly active in social welfare and ethnic minority issues. He stood as a candidate for the European Parliament in the 2014 elections. Nweke has served as Chief Executive and Chairman of Nigerians in Diaspora in Europe (NIDO Europe), and has been active in consultancy and advocacy in the field of socio-economic development for Nigeria and for Africa in general.

Dear Mr. Collins Nweke,

Due to the relatively independence of the East and West blocks and the closed character of the Soviet ideology, there was little reason to speak of any influence of one and another. Therefore, research activities for offensive or defensive purposes were mainly, conducted under military auspices with high degree of secrecy and controversial testing programs independently. Several countries began programs to develop Bio-Warfare programs following World War I (WWI) including Britain, Belgium, Canada, France, Holland, Italy, Soviet Union and Poland, as described by Bellamy and Freedman in their book: ‘Bio-terrorism’ in 2001.

So Mr. Nweke, although biological warfare was the subject of detailed examination pursuing WWI, However, the most infamous biological weapon program (BWP) was probably that begun by Japan in 1932, in occupied Manchuria. According to Sheldon H. Harris in his book ‘Factories Of Death,’ he describes the Japanese Biological Warfare development between 1932-1945. But more importantly he also described the American Cover-Up.

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The writer: Micro-surgeon Johan Van Dongen

Mr. Nweke, just for reference, in my book: “Pleidooi voor de Aap”, English title “Pleaded for the Ape”, and “Aids and Ebola the greatest crime in medical history against mankind,” I described that from 1931 to 1945, the Japanese Army engaged in biological warfare (BW) and chemical warfare (CW) experiments using live human subjects, which led to the first widespread use of bacteriological agents in the war. This definitive work about Unit 731 (the Japanese Army’s bacteriological warfare center) and its commander, lieutenant General Ishii Shiro, is the result of more than 20 years of research, including 12 field trips to China in the thirties and forties of the last century.

These actions changed the scope of research activities on ordinary citizens and specific Africans on highly contagious diseases of military importance dramatically. Thus, establishments of military research centers for aggressive, offensive, and defensive research developments began under high 2 secrecy, in both East and West blocs as also published by Klietmann and many others in 2001.

I assure you Mr. Nweke, there can be no doubt as to the fact that the ideological East-West conflict was one of the central problems of the globe of the last century, a period of tension driven by a complex interplay of ideological, political, and economical factors contradictory to one another, which led to shifts between cautious cooperation and often better superpower rivalry over decades. The foundation was the bipolar military competition between the two superpowers the USA and the USSR and their respective allies and developing countries, thus this era was more portrayed as an era of “proxy war” because of its global impact on the rest parts of the world.

Major research and development programs first emerged in the late 1930s and early 1940s. For instance, the development of biological weapons program which involved an extensive lists of causative agents of Plague, Glanders, Ebola, Aids etc, at Camp Detrick, Frederick, Maryland in USA, as the headquarters of the arm’s BW research was implemented in 1943, with approximately 3,800 military and 100 civil personnel. Where many of the efforts involved military researchers, other from Public Health Service, other Federal Agencies and Civilian Research Institutions were also involved.

Historical records show that USA, UK, Canada and the former Soviet Union (FSU) justified the importance of their program because they have learned that since 1937 Japan had conducted a large biological warfare program, including human test, at its Unit 731 in Manchuria.

The German army was considered to be the first to use weapons of mass destruction, both biological and chemical agents, during WWI, followed by Italian biological warfare programs.

Mr. Nweke, as a Belgium politician and very well educated, you should know by now that although all military research establishments in general are covert, the scale of secrecy, intensity of research, span of time, area of competence and precedence in specific agents. In the FSU research activities, these level were planned and controlled by state and kept under high secrecy till the collapse of the Soviet Union. In most cases, it is incomparable to that of the research approaches known in Western hemisphere.

For instance, the existence of large-scale production and storage capabilities of genetically manipulated vaccines, among other BW agents were some of the factors that distinguishes the Soviet Programs or in area of defense, the development of live plague vaccine based on EV76 line NIIEG used for more than 7 decades and continued to be used in some member states of FSU. This phenomenon is respectively described intensively by Ken Alibek in 1999, Henderson also in 1999 and by Zliniskas in 2006; and so far te work of investigative scientist and micro-surgeon Johan van Dongen.

Further scientific prove to Mr. Collins Nweke

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever the precursor of Ebola

The development of different forms of plague 7 vaccines, like non cellular or synthetic, vaccines also known as “chemical vaccine” proposed to be used as booster vaccine or an “aerosol vaccine” in combating disease outbreaks in case of Bio-attack or Bioterrorism were described by Alexandrov in 1962. These are some of unique achievements of FSU, for which no comparable studies are available in Western hemisphere.

In Africa, there are many species of animals that serve as natural reservoirs for the viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. For example, the strain of Ebola causing the current outbreak, Ebola Zaire, is believed to have been transferred to humans by fruit bats belonging to the Pteropodidae family, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This bat family, is also the natural reservoir for the Marburg virus.

Marburg virus has been linked to the recent death of a man in Uganda, as reported by the Washington Post. Like Ebola, Marburg belongs to the Filovirus family of viruses and is spread among humans when a person comes into contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person. Another virus found in Africa that causes hemorrhagic fever is Lassa virus, which is an Arenavirus and is predominantly found in West Africa.

Unlike Ebola and Marburg, the reservoir host of Lassa is a rodent known as the Multimammate rat. Whereas the Filoviruses Ebola and Marburg cannot be spread through the air, Lassa virus can be transmitted when tiny particles of rat feces or urine containing the virus become airborne, according to the Ohio Department of State Infectious Disease Control Manual (ODH-IDCM).

All of the virus families that can cause hemorrhagic fever share certain characteristics, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. They all have a basic structure that consists of a core of ribonucleic acid (RNA) as the genetic material, surrounded by a fatty material.

Harry Hoogstraal and the discovery in our times of Ebola

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), nowadays known as Ebola, came to modern medical attention in 1944–1945, when about 200 Soviet military personnel were infected while assisting peasants in war-devastated Crimea (Ukrainian SSR). Subsequent epidemics occurred in Astrakhan (1953–1968) and Rostov Oblasts (1963–1971) of USSR and in Bulgaria (1953–1973). There have been numerous lesser outbreaks in southern USSR and, in 1976 outbreaks in Pakistan.

However, it was only in 1967, when Soviet workers first used the generally accepted newborn white mouse (NWM) inoculation technique for CCHF virus isolation and study, that the etiologic agent could be characterized anti-genetically, physio-chemically, and morphologically. Collaboration in 1968 between the Soviet and American experts, M. P. Chumakov and Jordi Casals demonstrated the serologically identical properties of virus strains from human CCHF patients and corpses, lower mammals, and ticks from Asian and European areas of the USSR and from Bulgaria, Congo (Zaire), Nigeria, and Pakistan.

These results confirmed and broadened in subsequent studies, enabled serological and other research tools to be developed for producing identifiable antibodies and antigens required in experimental procedures and seroepidemiological surveys and obtaining scientific evidence to demonstrate vector and reservoir species and virus dynamics in nature. CCHF virus, a member (without generic assignment) of the family Bunyaviridae, is the prototype of the CCHF serogroup, which also includes Hazara virus (from Ixodes redikorzevi parasitizing alpine voles in Pakistan). CCHF virus is enzootic in the Palearctic, Oriental, and Ethiopian Faunal Regions, chiefly in steppe, savanna, semi-desert, and foothill biotopes where 1 or 2 Hyalomma species are the predominant ticks parasitizing domestic and wild animals.

Presence of the virus has been demonstrated by isolations from humans fore instance in Senegal, Nigeria, Central African Empire, Zaire, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Egypt. As the current concern of bioterrorism with the use the growing of Ebola agents and its global concern, full understanding of research achievements of the FSU/CIS on the subject is indispensible.

Today more than ever, global threats requires much greater collaboration between governments, experts, institutions, in creating a global grass–roots of networks of research and discussion, to achieve global solutions in developing, an efficient, universal, acceptable vaccine most importantly against the Ebola plague, as the most possible way to avoid bioterrorism on public health and the concerns about security at the global level.

Thus, a long term sustainable schedules of congresses and partnership between Russia, and other leading states on the research activities of the pathogens in concerns in the world will be the best option for the solution, development of prophylactic measures against the pathogens, in creating a think-tank, comprising ranges of experts from different countries of interest, initiating dialogs, enhancing transparency and better cooperation in both sides.

Reference:

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/15.4.307 307-417 First published online: 22 May 1979.

Mr. Nweke, what is your role as a politician for Africans in your motherland and Africa in general?

Mr. Nweke, as an African politician in Belgium, one thing you should know is that, it’s not your position as the only African politician in Belgium that matters, but your services to both Belgians and the African Community in Belgium. Are you pleased about the statues of Leopold and streets named after him after maiming and killing over ten million Africans, including innocent children in Congo, when there is no statue of Adolf Hitler for killing six million Jews? What are you doing as an African politician to help your fellow Africans in your mother land, to prevent being used as Guinea pigs to test drugs manufactured in Europe and America?

I see no reason for attacking Mr. Joel Savage on LinkedIn’s platform, for encouraging Africans to read, because he wants Africans who don’t like to read, to stop saying that Aids and Ebola are curses from God and acknowledged the facts that they are medical crimes committed by the West and America against Africans.

Mr. Nweke, you came to Belgium in 1993 and Mr. Savage came in the year 2000, but it seems you did little or haven’t done anything at all for the African Community in Antwerp, so they don’t know you. Because when Antwerp’s African Community were scared to go for treatment in Stuivenberg Hospital, due to the abnormal high death rate of Africans in that hospital, the African Community asked Mr. Savage as a journalist to go there to investigate and he did.

The results of his investigations is now published as Little Boygium-Wonderful Experience.’ His book has made Stuivenberg Hospital one of the safest hospitals in Antwerp at the moment. When I asked Mr. Savage why he did the investigation, he told me that, Belgium is a country you don’t need to trust, because if they can erect statue and named streets after a criminal who killed and maimed over ten thousand Africans, including children, then they can definitely kill Africans for body organs.

Mr. Nweke, I would like to leave with this advice, you can always clear your voice or sing for someone to feel your presence, but do it at the right time. I’m sorry I don’t know your significance as an African politician in Belgium, when Mr. Savage is doing the work you suppose to do for the African Community.