King Leopold: The Butcher Of Congo

New African News Magazine’s editor, Baffour Ankomah reviews author Hochschild’s King Leopold’s Ghost. 

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Only 90 years ago, the agents of King Leopold II of Belgium massacred 10 million Africans in the Congo. Cutting off hands as we see in Sierra Leone today, was very much part of Leopold’s repertoire. Today, Leopold’s “rubber terror” has all been swept under the carpet. Adam Hochschild calls it “the great forgetting” in his brilliant new book, King Leopold’s Ghost, recently published by Macmillan. This is a story of greed, exploitation and brutality that Africa and the world must not forget.

This story is actually best understood when told in reverse order. Leopold never set foot in “his” Congo Free State – for all the 23 years (1885-1908) he ruled what Hochschild calls “the world’s only colony claimed by one man”.

It was a vast territory which “if superimposed on the map of Europe”, says Hochschild, “would stretch from Zurich to Moscow to central Turkey. It was bigger than England, France, Germany, Spain and Italy combined. Although mostly rainforest and savannah, it also embraced volcanic hills and mountains covered by snow and glaciers, some of whose peaks reached higher than the Alps.”

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King Leopold’s crime in images.

Leopold’s “rubber terror” raised a lot of hairs in Britain, America and continental Europe (particularly between the years 1900-1908). But while they were condemning Leopold’s barbarity, his accusers were committing much the same atrocities against Africans elsewhere on the continent.

Hochschild tells it better: “True, with a population loss estimated at 10 million people, what happened in the Congo could reasonably be called the most murderous part of the European Scramble for Africa. But that is so only if you look at sub-Saharan Africa as the arbitrary checkerboard formed by colonial boundaries.


Holding hacked off wrists, brutality by King Leopold.

“With a decade of [Leopold’s] head start [in the Congo], similar forced labour systems for extracting rubber were in place in the French territories west and north of the Congo River, in Portuguese-ruled Angola, and in the nearby Cameroon under the Germans.

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3 thoughts on “King Leopold: The Butcher Of Congo

  1. My African brothers and sisters have every reason to hate the perpetrators of these abominable crimes against humanity.. I’m sure they were not brought to justice for them. The whole of Belgium is not enough to compensate these crimes. Europeans who have become rich thanks to African resources dare to treat Africans who migrate to Europe as dogs and slaves. Is there any tribunal in Europe that can review the atrocities committed by King Leopold II and his government 90 years ago and compel the current Belgium government to pay compensation in millions of dollars to the Congolese government? What a shame! Loganaden Ramalingum


  2. Thanks for the comment Loganaden. To add salt into injury, despite all the crimes King Leopold committed against the Congolese in Africa, by killing over 10 million including children, the Belgium government has named many streets after him and built statues to honour him in Belgium, when there is no statue of Adolf Hitler anywhere in this world, because he killed 6 million Jews. Crimes, including medical, Aids and Ebola were committed against Africans with impunity, yet the developed world speaks about justice and built International Court of Justice in The Hague to put Africans leaders who commit crime against humanity on trial. Hypocrites. The chicken will surely come home to roost.


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